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AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

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AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017 FOR BACHELOR

QUESTION NO.3:-
A) COMPARE FEATURE OF WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM ON YOUR COMPUTER WITH OTHER OPERATING SYSTEM. B) BRIEFLY EXPLAIN THE TERMS: ASSEMBLER, COMPILER, LINKER AND INTERPRETER.
Answer:-
An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer’s processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and others use the term assembly language.
In the earliest computers, programmers actually wrote programs in machine code, but assembler languages or instruction sets were soon developed to speed up programming. Today, assembler programming is used only where very efficient control over processor operations is needed. It requires knowledge of a particular computer’s instruction set, however. Historically, most programs have been written in “higher-level” languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, and C. These languages are easier to learn and faster to write programs with than assembler language. The program that processes the source code written in these languages is called a compiler. Like the assembler, a compiler takes higher-level language statements and reduces them to machine code.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017 B.A LEVEL

COMPILER:-
A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program.
The name “compiler” is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly or machine code). If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is known as a cross-compiler. A program that translates from a low level language to a higher level one is a decompiler. A program that translates between high-level languages is usually called a language translator, source to source translator, or language converter. A language rewriter is usually a program that translates the form of expressions without a change of language.
A compiler is likely to perform many or all of the following operations: lexical analysis, preprocessing, parsing, semantic analysis (Syntax-directed translation), code generation, and code optimization.
Program faults caused by incorrect compiler behavior can be very difficult to track down and work around; therefore, compiler implementer invest significant effort to ensure compiler correctness.
The term compiler-compiler is sometimes used to refer to a parser generator, a tool often used to help create the lexer and parser.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

LINKER:-
In computer science, a linker or link editor is a computer program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single executable program.
A simpler version that wrote its output directly to memory was called the loader, though loading is typically considered a separate process
Computer programs typically comprise several parts or modules; these parts/modules need not all be contained within a single object file, and in such case refer to each other by means of symbols. Typically, an object file can contain three kinds of symbols:
• defined symbols, which allow it to be called by other modules,
• undefined symbols, which call the other modules where these symbols are defined, and
• local symbols, used internally within the object file to facilitate relocation.
For most compilers, each object file is the result of compiling one input source code file. When a program comprises multiple object files, the linker combines these files into a unified executable program, resolving the symbols as it goes along.
Linkers can take objects from a collection called a library. Some linkers do not include the whole library in the output; they only include its symbols that are referenced from other object files or libraries. Libraries exist for diverse purposes, and one or more system libraries are usually linked in by default.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

Interpreter:-
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without previously compiling them into a machine language program. An interpreter generally uses one of the following strategies for program execution:
• parse the source code and perform its behavior directly
• translate source code into some efficient representation and immediately execute this
• explicitly execute stored precompiled code made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

Early versions of the Lisp programming language and Dartmouth BASIC would be examples of the first type. Perl, Python, MATLAB, and Ruby are examples of the second, while UCSD Pascal is an example of the third type. Source programs are compiled ahead of time and stored as machine independent code, which is then linked at run-time and executed by an interpreter and/or compiler (for PT systems). Some systems, such as Smalltalk, contemporary versions of BASIC, Java and others may also combine two and three.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

QUESTION NO.4:-
A) EXPLAIN THE BASIC CONCEPT OF MULTIMEDIA WITH THE HELP OF PROPER EXAMPLES. B) IDENTIFY TEN DIFFERENT EXAMPLES OF MULTIMEDIA AND ALSO DESCRIBE FIVE OF THEM IN DETAIL.
Answer:-
A) CONCEPT OF MULTIMEDIA:-
Multimedia refers to content that uses a combination of different content forms. This contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, or interactivity content forms.
Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed, or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term “rich media” is synonymous for multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories. Linear active content progresses often without any navigational control for the viewer such as a cinema presentation. Non-linear uses interactivity to control progress as with a video game or self-paced computer based training. Hypermedia is an example of non-linear content.
Multimedia presentations can be live or recorded. A recorded presentation may allow interactivity via a navigation system. A live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via an interaction with the presenter or performer.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTIMEDIA
Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, projected, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a live or recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be either analog or digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia may be downloaded or streamed. Streaming multimedia may be live or on-demand.
Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users’ experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or it entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience
AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is increasingly becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images (pictures) and title (text) user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficient, events, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia “experience” to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may also enhance the multimedia experience.


AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

B):- EXAMPLES OF MULTIMEDIA:-
Advances in technology including increased disk storage capacity, greater bandwidth capacities, improved resolution of capture devices and the increasing processing power of CPUs have influenced the development of multimedia systems. Increased disk storage capacity as well as advanced codecs for compressing data have enabled the creation of high quality interactive multimedia products that can be stored with ease. The speed and capacity of Internet connections have allowed large organizations, for example, to use online multimedia tutorials for computer based training (CBT). Home users interact with a multimedia websites for education purposes but more and more people now regard the net as a source of multimedia leisure and entertainment – online games, for example. Even traditional information providers such as newspapers and magazines are now creating Web-specific multimedia content. The increased use of DVDs over the past few years has brought about a significant change in the way we look at multimedia. Not only do we see a video as it was meant to be, but we can also interact with DVDs and have more control of the content that is displayed. The ever increasing speed and power of CPUs has had a tremendous influence on the ability of computers to create and display multimedia. High quality musical and video programs can be easily handled by modern CPUs, with the added benefit of being able to jump to any point in a program instantaneously.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

EDUCATION AND TRAINING
In an educational multimedia system, the participants are the students and the teachers. The use of multimedia in this context is to inform and educate. Two major requirements of educational multimedia packages are good navigational options and a sufficient breadth and depth of information. The keyboard (for keyword searches) and the mouse (with hypermedia links) are usually used for navigation. The system will most probable to have all or most of the data types (text, hypertext, numbers, audio, images, animations and video) along with different hardware and software devices. Text is the most common data type.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
LEISURE AND ENTERTAINMENT
The participants in this type of system will be ranging from a variety of people from all ages. Often, their knowledge and skill about information technology are relatively low. The most common form of leisure and entertainment multimedia is the interactive computer game. The games are typically stored on CD-ROM (and increasingly on DVD) due to the amount of data and have. The average gamer (player) is only keen in audio, hypermedia, video and animated data types. User interaction with the system will most likely be through a mouse, trackball, or joystick. The keyboard is rarely used. In multimedia design for leisure and entertainment, it is important to note that it includes features such as fast action and allows the ability of the user to explore and discovery. A wide range of multimedia technology (high resolution VDU, audio speakers, CD/DVD drive, etc.) is likely to be present. The Internet are now widely used as a source to locate support devices and software for their system or leisure activities. These can be sharing MP3 files, downloading embroidery patterns, etc. These activities, however, have generated controversy over copyright issues.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
INFORMATION PROVISION
This type of multimedia is usually aimed at quickly providing very basic information. The participants for this system are similar to leisure and entertainment systems. Their information technology skills are frequently low as well as in leisure and entertainment. The users in this system only have an objective of locating and displaying information for a specified topic. Examples would include information kiosks in tourist centers, interactive directories in retail stores and shopping centers, and catalogue systems in libraries. The navigation options will often be simple with little depth. With an information kiosk, the interactive devices will usually be touch-sensitive screens or a trackball built into the system case. The publicity in the context of this system means that the use of keyboard or mouse is unlikely, due to no supervision. Because they are likely to be in the noisy environment of a shopping Centre or near a busy street, audio may not be part of the presentation.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
SIMULATIONS AND VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)
Simulation and VR systems are designed to duplicate real situations. These systems are used among the most sophisticated and expensive of computer-based systems. The purpose of a simulation is usually to create a situation with sufficient authenticity and realism that user can gain valuable training and experience from using the system. VR systems conducts this as a more developed simulation where the users are convinced that they are part of a real situation. The users are often specialists (ignoring entertainment-based systems) using the technology to further their knowledge and/or training. For example, the inside of a flight simulator will resemble a real aircraft cockpit and not a computer terminal. VR systems can be used to design new drugs and chemical products. In simulating the movement of atoms and molecules, motion ur position sensitive gloves are used. A 3D video headset allows researchers to see these simulated reactions and chemical structures. The making of these systems are expensive because of the degree of realism they require. A flight simulator for a modern commercial passenger jet will cost millions of dollars.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
CHANGES CAUSED BY TECHNOLOGY
AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
WORLD WIDE WEB
The World Wide Web has entered, adapted, advanced so quickly in the society. It was the first widely available hypertext system that could be used by people with totally different computer systems. The original standard (HTML 1) allowed only text, numbers and hypertext. Later standards (HTML 2 and above) incorporated graphics, then audio, and video. Many claim that the Internet would stay unknown if the Web was not introduced. As a direct result, terms such as ‘e-commerce’, ‘e-mail’, ‘Internet’ and ‘search engine’ became a part of the colloquial language. Almost everyone today now knows about the Web, even though there are still some who don’t understand it. A web address is now an important item on all advertising, business cards and letterheads. The increasing popularity of the Web and the Internet have made way for developments of new technologies such as faster modems (56 kbps) modems, ISDN and ADSL links for delivering data between computer systems.
AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
CD-ROM SPEED
The original CD-ROM standard was single speed and was designed to match the speed of audio CDs at 150 kbps. While this was (and still is) ideal for high quality music, single speed CD-ROMs were generally too slow for multimedia applications involving video or large animations (such as games). The original video storage standard, MPEG, was designed to allow digitized videos to be played directly from single speed CD-R0Ms but the quality of the video images had to be reduced. Most CD-ROMs were used to install a multimedia application such as a game onto a hard disk drive. With faster CD-ROM drive speeds, better quality video is possible, we now have high quality movies on CD-ROM systems, increasing the CD-ROM speed is not a solution to all multimedia problems.
AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
DVD:-
Originally, DVD stood for “Digital Video Disc” but it has been changed to “Digital Versatile Disc” as it better describes the capabilities of this storage device. DVD used to be commonly used for movies or videos. VHS or videocassettes were replaced by DVDs. The enormous storage capacity of a DVD means that it can store an entire movie, with extra scene and other materials added, and give viewers a choice of sound tracks in several different languages. Nonetheless, a DVD is capable in displaying more than just movies. DVD technologies can be used as encyclopedias, interactive games, complete training systems, complex simulations, etc. Current DVD technology allows up to 17 gigabytes of data to be stored in a single disc, whereas, CD-ROMs are ‘limited to only 650 megabytes.

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