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Q.8: Read the text and answer the questions given at the end. In a large hospital there are several operating theaters, and in a teaching hospital there are often seats where medical students may sit and watch the surgeon at work. The first necessity in an operating theater is cleanliness. The surgeons and nurses change their shoes on entering, and all wear masks over the face; the latter prevent the air which they breathe out from contaminating the open wound in the patient’s body. For the same purpose, the surgeon will first scrub his hands in hot running water, using a special soap and a sterilized brush; then he will put his hands and arms in spirit and then dry them on a sterilized towel. He will then put on his sterilized white gown, and after rubbing some powder on his hands he will put on a pair of sterilized gloves. All this must be done to prevent any germs from reaching the wound he is about to make, where they might cause blood poisoning. Over the operating table there is an electric lamp so made that it gives light from many directions at the same time. With such a lamp there will be no shadows thrown by the surgeon’s hands to hide any part of the area on which he is operating. All the instruments that he needs have been sterilized before the operation begins and are handed to him as he needs them by his assistant or by the theatre sister, who must also be ready to take from his hand the instrument with which he has finished. Theater sisters who have had plenty of practice will very often know which instrument he will need next and will have it ready even before he asks for it. In some operations the saving of a few minutes may mean the saving of the patient’s life.
i. Find words in the passage meaning – Infecting – Made free from germs – Something that prevents dust or germs to enter the mouth – Cleaning hands – Cutting the damaged/infected pan of the body
ii. Why is cleanliness important in an operation theater?
iii. How can a good nurse give extra help to the surgeon? iv. What would happen if an ordinary electric lamp were used in an operating theater?


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