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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 EXISTING CURRICULUM
Q NO. WHAT ARE THE DEFICIENCIES IN THE EXISTING CURRICULUM OF THE GRADE IX? DISCUSS PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION AND SUGGEST STRATEGIES TO UPGRADE THE EXISTING CURRICULUM.
Education is a must for civilization. Today a dark clouds hovers over Pakistan, where illiteracy is on the increase due to negligence of the government of Pakistan. Which spends only 1% of the GDP on education for 160 million population of the country. The illiteracy level which is tied to the poverty level goes hand in hand and the tragedy of Pakistan is that all the successive administrations since its birth 61 years ago have failed to address the issue of Education.
DEFICIENCIES IN THE EXISTING CURRICULUM OF THE GRADE IX
It is important to identify the relevant issues which have brought the illiteracy to this elevated level. In this high tech world this elevated level of poverty and illiteracy is not acceptable and it is important to identify the weakness of the government’s approach to the present level of education and rectify the situation.
The education system we have on our hands in 2008 is in total shambles and we are producing matriculate from these schools with very little skills and absolutely no command over the English language, which today is the language of science, technology, commerce, finance and marketing. Today even a country like China is putting higher emphasis on this language. Of course four Scandinavian countries declared English as a compulsory subject in their schools almost 40 years ago. Today in Pakistan instead of a one tier school system, we thru our callousness have created a 4 tier system of education in Pakistan, and they are as follows:
1. Cambridge Education system: this foreign education system is exclusively for the children of very rich so that they can after graduation go overseas for higher education on the foreign exchange provided to them by Pakistan Sate Bank
2. Pakistan Secondary Education system: this is provided by private and government schools, one for the middle class and other for the poor. The one for the middle class has a medium of instruction in English and the other one in Urdu. The children from these institutions if they happen to have good grades and the parental financial help go to the colleges of their interest and the rest either become clerk/cashiers/sales person in a shop/ worker in the factory/ any other work which comes their way.
3. Madressah Education System: this is supposed to provide religious education. The results of this education are in front of us. Except for few who do provide a true Islamic Education most of the students of Madressah have graduated from them with a perverted Ideology and has been a recruiting ground for terrorism.
4. This one has no name and consists of children who are born in misery and die in misery.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM
Principles of Curriculum Construction:-
Hayes has analyzed the existing curricula of Pakistan. He has also examine the process of Islamization of Education, particularly curriculum and text books in Pakistan, Which have undergone significant changes during the last few years and the ways in which it has affected the process of curriculum development in Pakistan. He also gives an assessment of the criticism against the curriculum revision process and some of the fundamental issues with which the policy makers of the country are confronted in present times. In this context he has particularly analysis the problems of women education and language in Pakistan. The main principles of curriculum construction may be mentioned as under:
1. PRINCIPLE OF CHILD CENTEREDNESS.
As modern education is child-centered the curriculum should also be child-centered. It should be based on the child’s needs, interests, abilities, aptitude, age level and circumstances. The child should be central figure in any scheme of curriculum construction. In fact, curriculum is meant to bring about the development of the child in the desired direction so that he is able to adjust well in life.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY
2. PRINCIPLE OF COMMUNITY CENTREDNESS:-
Though the child’s development and growth is the main consideration of curriculum construction, yet his social behavior is also to be suitably developed, both the individual development and the social development of the child deserve equal attention. He is to live in and for the society. Therefore, his needs and desires must be in conformity with the needs and desires of the society in which he is to live. The values, attitudes and skills that are prevailing in the community must be reflected in the curriculum. However, the society is not static. It is dynamic. Its needs and requirements are changing with the rapid developments taking place in all fields. While working for the development, this factor cannot be ignored.
3. PRINCIPLE OF ACTIVITY CENTREDNESS.
The curriculum should center round the multifarious activities of pupils. It should provide well selected activities according to the general interests and developmental stages of children. It should provide constructive, creative and project activities. For small children, play activities should also be provided. The purposeful activities both in the class-room and outside the class-room should be provided. It is through a network of activities that the desired experiences can be provided and consequently desirable behavioral changes can be brought about in children.
4. PRINCIPLE OF VARIETY:-
The curriculum should be broad-based so as to accommodate the needs of varied categories of; nods, so that they are able to take up subjects and participate in activities according their capacities and interests. The needs of pupils also change from place to place. For example, the pupils in rural areas, urban areas, and hilly areas will have different needs. The needs of boys and girls are also different. So these considerations should be reflected in the curriculum.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION
5. PRINCIPLE OF CO-ORDINATION AND INTEGRATION:-
Of course, the pupils are to be provided with selected experiences through various subjects and activities but these must be well integrated. Various subjects and activities have to serve the same ultimate purpose, the achievement of the aims of education. The activities and subjects should not be put in after. Tight compartments but these should be inter-related and well integrated so as to develop the whole child.
6. PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION:-
One of the main functions of education is to preserve and transmit our cultural heritage. This is essential! for human progress. Culture consists of traditions, customs, attitudes, skills, conduct, values and knowledge. However, the curriculum framers must make a suitable selection of the elements of culture, keeping n view their educational value and the developmental stage of pupils.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLE OF CREATIVITY.
7. PRINCIPLE OF CREATIVITY:-
The conservation of culture helps to sustain the society. The culture should not be simply transmitted but also enriched. There should be provision in the curriculum to develop he creative powers of the child so that he becomes a contributory member society. Reymont says, “In curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future, there must be definitely creative subjects.”
8. PRINCIPLE OF FORWARD LOOKING:-
Education is to enable the child to lead a successful social life. So the curriculum should not cater to the present needs of the child alone. The needs of his future life should also be considered The curriculum should also include knowledge, skills, experiences, influences etc. which will develop in the child abilities and power to make effective adjustments in the later life.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLES OF FLEXIBILITY
9. PRINCIPLE OF FLEXIBILITY:-
In our age, rapid developments are taking place in various fields. Consequently the needs of society are hanging. The content of curriculum cannot be same for all times to come. It should not be static. It must be dynamic and change with the changing times. It should reflect the latest trends in the field of education and psychology.
10. PRINCIPLE OF BALANCE:-
The curriculum must maintain a balance between subjects and activities, between direct and indirect experiences, between academic and vocational education, between compulsory and optional subjects, between formal and informal education, between individual and social aims of education etc.
11. PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY:-
Curriculum should be useful rather than ornamental. It should not only include subjects which owe their place in it to tradition. The curriculum must have practical utility for students. So there should be some provision for technical and vocational education in the curriculum. The various principles of curriculum construction should be kept in mind. Various regional and national conditions should also be considered. It fact, all considerations which will help in achieving the aims of education should be given due consideration
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 STRATEGIES TO UPGRADE CURRICULUM
STRATEGIES TO UPGRADE THE EXISTING CURRICULUM
Now this is a very tall order to remove all the discrepancies of the past 61 years. The question is where should we start? It is a mind boggling question and one wishes there was a simple answer. However as a starter on paper a single integrated education system has to be established, for that we need the minds of our best, from educationist to engineers, doctors, scientist, marketers, financiers, lawyers, agriculturist, all pooled together on one table to establish a curriculum from grade 1-10. Besides the subject of science, technology and commerce a higher level of emphasis has to be placed on mother tongue and the English language. The teachers have to be trained in these subjects with mastery. The next stage and a crucial one is the implementation of this new curriculum. This will be harder than the preparation of a new curriculum. The part of implementation will start with updating the education levels of teachers followed by selecting 10% of the primary and secondary schools of the country and introducing the new curriculum to them. The following year another 10% of schools will be brought into new system. If the program proceeds as planned Pakistan will have all its schools under the new progressive education system in 10 years. However, the fruit of this miracle will become visible in 2-3 years when the parents of the student will come to know of this revolutionary change in the education system. They will see the government schools providing education equal to or better than the private school at zero fee, there will be a massive movement of student to the govt. school. That will be a crucial time for the government to make sure that no corrupt practices take place and the transfer is executed in an orderly way Once the movement of children from private to government school has started that will be the time to ban the Cambridge system of education in Pakistan. In a unified Pakistan, there has to be one education system for all the children of Pakistan. This wil lead us to Unity, Faith and Discipline, the slogan made popular by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Quaid-e-Azam, and the Creator of Pakistan.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 CRITICALLY ANALYZE THE PROCESSES.
Q NO. 2: CRITICALLY ANALYZE THE PROCESS OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRICULUM IN PAKISTAN.
The process of curriculum development is facing serious issues in Pakistan. These issues are interference of bureaucrats, the absence of involvement of school teachers etc. Experts sitting in curriculum development boards do not use academic resources properly for revis.ng outdated sections of school textbooks. EAST offers innovative solutions for meeting the needs of curriculum development in Pakistan.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 WHAT IS CURRICULUM.
WHAT IS CURRICULUM?
While thinking about education, the most important idea that comes to mind is curriculum. Curriculum is a channel that school administration needs for giving educational and life skills to students. However, unluckily, in Pakistani context, this idea is highly misunderstood due to which students do not get enriched educational experience in schools.
CURRICULUM DOES NOT CHANGE IN PAKISTAN:-
Ghulam Haider in his article, “Process of Curriculum Development in Pakistan,” says that curriculum is not a static process, but it is a dynamic exercise that must undergo changes according to society’s new demands In Pakistan, curriculum development is a static process. There are many reasons for the failure in developing proper curriculum. Some of them are discussed below. Issues in curriculum development
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 CURRICULUM IS OUTDATED.
1. Curriculum is outdated:-
Firstly, the curriculum is outdated, which does not meet the local needs of Pakistani society. Raja Omer Shabbir in his article, “The curriculum problems,” notes that our present generation is learning the same knowledge that previous two generations have learnt. As students from different parts of the world get difficult mathematical and scientific knowledge by activity-based learning, our students are forced to know scientific concepts through cramming. For example, in school textbooks of Mathematics at primary level, the concepts of shapes in geometry lessons are not written correctly. One example is of sphere and circle. Most of the teachers do rot know that a sphere is a solid shape and a circle is a flat shape. Many teachers teach students that the shape of sun is a circle and not a sphere. It is sad situation that experts designing school textbooks of mathematics at primary level do not pay attention to include the concept of solid and flat shapes together.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 INVOLVEMENT OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS.
2. INVOLVEMENT OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS:-
Secondly, both Haider and Shabbir note that involvement of government officers in the development of Pakistani curriculum is proving harmful to our education system. Haider suggests that the current process of curriculum development is based on a uniform policy for the whole country that has its particular aims and goals, but he thinks that it is not possible to apply national educational policy to different regions of the country with equality. For example, there are many underdeveloped areas of Pakistan, where parents do not have adequate resources to send their children to schools. The drop-out rate from schools is high, because parents cannot afford the expense of education easily. Hence, a new educational policy has to be made by government officers for poor students, so that their problems of education can be solved. One way of doing this is to build schools, where students are allowed to study in evening time, and where books having basic knowledge about core subjects such as English, Mathematics, Science, Urdu and Islam are taught by trained teachers.
3. LACK OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH:-
Thirdly, the problem that the process of curriculum development faces in Pakistan is improper academic research for writing school textbooks. Haider points out those experts sitting in the curriculum development boards use materials of their own choice for instruction in schools. He says that most of the times the chosen content is not up to the mark. While going through textbooks approved by several board systems in the country, it becomes clear that no suitable research/evaluation system is created to revise curriculum. For example, in computer books of Class 9th, students still learn serial and parallel ports. However, it is noted that all electronic devices created in present day are connected with computers by USB port.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 ABSENCE OF SCHOOL TEACHER
4. Absence of school teachers’ involvement Fourthly, it is seen that the academic experience of teachers from different schools is also not considered in designing and revising school curriculum. Daniel Tanner and Laurel N. Tanner in their book, “Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice,” suggest that without intelligent participation of school teachers, meaningful curriculum development will not be achieved. Tanner and Tanner say that teachers, who are involved in bringing out educational change, accept and adopt the new ideas more quickly than those teachers who are not involved in carrying out change. Useful evidence suggests that in countries where well-educated teachers were not involved in the curriculum development process. they did not accept new changes in school textbooks.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 RESULT OF WEAK ACADEMIC SKILLS
RESULT OF WEAK ACADEMIC SKILLS OF RESEARCHERS:-
With lack of academic skills in researchers responsible for designing curriculum for schools, the most important feature of curriculum, i.e. content suffers a lot. Students follow rote-learning process, because the content of their books does not match to their educational skills. In order to make students problem-solvers, Shabbir argues that our books must contain questions that relate to problems we face in our daily life. By answering those questions, students will learn to solve issues in difficult situations. For example, while studying the concept of speed in science, students must be given questions related to real-life examples of speed such as speed of a car etc., so that they know the application of the concept.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 SOCIETY AFFECT
Q NO. 3: HOW DOES AND TO WHAT EXTENT A SOCIETY AFFECT CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT? DISCUSS IN DETAIL.
The debate between traditionalists and progressives over curriculum (and I use this term to include both content and pedagogy) is essentially a debate on how best to prepare students to live in society. Differences of opinion about curriculum stem from deeper differences about the nature of learning, the nature of society, and the purpose of schools in a democracy. Traditionalists structure schools to prepare students for filling roles in society–not for transforming it. They do not see that traditional approaches may contribute to maintaining the inequity and injustice that exist in our society. Progressives see society as needing improvement and the schools as serving the function of helping students become thinking citizens who can contribute to creating a more just society. John Dewey, the leading progressive educator of the century, wrote that “education is the fundamental method of social progress and reform.” About a year ago, while preparing a talk on the subject of this essay, I thought it would be interesting to find out what people thought were the major influences on education during this century. I consulted one of the chronologies of “key events of the century” that are being published as we near the year 2000. There were five references in the index under “Education.” Four of the references were to three progressive educators. There were two to Maria Montessori–the establishment of her first school in 1907 and her death in 1952; one to John Dewey – the publication in 1916 of Democracy in Education ; and one to A. S. Neill – the founder of Summer hill School in England in 1921, a school governed by students. The other reference surprised me. It was to the publication (1920) by William McDougall of Is America Safe for Democracy? Which argued, among its other concerns, for the superiority of some races of people over others.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 WORK OF MONTESSORI
It is clear how the work of Montessori, Dewey, and Neill pertains to the debate over content and pedagogy. Maria Montessori was an Italian physician who established a school to educate children who were labeled “mentally retarded.” Her schools were so successful that her approaches spread internationally, and parents now pay substantial tuition to have their “bright” children attend Montessori schools. Montessori’s writings and methods have influenced the progressive movement. One of her central principles was respect for the child’s intelligence: “And so we discovered that education is not something which the teacher does, but that it is a natural process which develops spontaneously in the human being.” Dewey wanted schools to teach students to think: “Skill obtained apart from thinking is not connected with any sense of the purposes for which it is to be used…. It leaves a man at the mercy of his routine habits and of the authoritative control of others…. Information severed from thoughtful action is dead, a mind-crushing load.” Neill’s fundamental belief was that the child is wise and realistic. He wrote: “When my first wife and I began the school, we had one main idea: to make the school fit the child instead of making the child fit the school.”
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 CONTINUED
The relation of McDougall’s work to the debate between progressives and traditionalists may be less obvious. McDougall was a professor of psychology at Harvard University and one of a group of psychologists and geneticists from leading American universities involved early in this century in the eugenics movement. The eugenicists’ attempt in the 1920s and 1930s to prove the superiority of certain racial, national, and social-class groups had important consequences for education. One eugenic st, for example, was the psychologist Carl Brigham, the secretary of the College Board, who developed the SAT. a test that influences curriculum to this day. Other eugenicists were even more prominent than Brigham. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology geneticist Frederick Adams Woods said that there was not a ‘grain of proof” that “environment can alter the salient mental and moral traits in any reasonable degree from what they were determined to be through innate influences.” Edward East, a Harvard geneticist, wrote, “Gene packets of African origin are not valuable supplements to the gene packets of European origin; it is the white germ plasm that counts.” The eugenics movement in this country disappeared after the Nazis took the belief of racial superiority to its logical and horrific conclusions in the early 1940s. But the ideas still persist. The Bell Curve (1994), for example, states: “Putting it all together, success and failure in the American economy and all that goes with it, are increasingly a matter of the genes that people inherit.”
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 CONNECTION OF EUGENICS.
The connection of the eugenics movement to schools is this. The pronouncements of prominent scientists tend to influence educational policy and practice. For example, if educators believe that genes determine intelligence and/or character, and that some groups of people are superior, they are likely to accept schools functioning as sorting mechanisms. They will value certain kinds of assessment instruments as valid tools to sort and classify students. Such educators will treat the child who doesn’t fit the school as if it is the child’s fault and require that he or she either do better in the existing system or accept a less rewarding future.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 MATHEMATICS A VIBRANT.
Examining the current controversy in California about mathematics curriculum will illuminate the connection between the debate over curriculum (content and pedagogy) and people’s beliefs about learning. This controversy has its roots in the 1973 California Mathematics Framework, which stated in part: “Mathematics becomes a vibrant, vital subject when points of view are argued and, for this reason, interaction among pupils should be encouraged. A significant feature of a mathematics learning environment is the spirit of free and open investigation…. Mathematics instructional material should be relevant to the pupil’s interests and needs and should provide for pupil experimentation.” Although this framework described a sharp departure from traditional practice, it did not cause any controversy. It took 20 years for opponents of the reform to emerge, organize, and eventually change state policy to endorse traditional instruction. As part of the debate over the nature of mathematics standards, the California board of education invited E.D. Hirsch Jr. to speak to it. Hirsch (speaking in April 1997) advocated a traditionalist position, based on the research of leading scientists who agree ” that varied and repeated practice leading to rapid recall and automaticity in mathematics is a necessary prerequisite to higher-order problem-solving skills in both mathematics and the sciences.”
One effect of emphasizing rapid recall and automaticity is that students come to believe that mathematics is a set of rules to memorize rather than an exciting, beautiful, and useful discipline. Young people deserve to experience the excitement of mathematics and to have its power at their disposal, both for their enjoyment and for its use as a problem-solving tool. The emphasis on rapid recall and automaticity also causes many students to detest mathematics–and often school. Every 4-year-old I’ve ever met was excited about going to school and eager to learn. I know many 14-year-olds, however, who took upon school, and mathematics in particular, as a burden. That need not be the case. Learning can take pace in an atmosphere where students’ thinking is respected, their natural curiosity nurtured, their intensity engaged, and where they enjoy learning. That is not to say that learning will always be easy. But people can and do enjoy all sorts of challenges. Young people deserve to experience the excitement of mathematics and to have its power at their disposal.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 TROUBLESOME EFFECTS.
The most troublesome effect of emphasizing rapid recall and automaticity is that many students memorize rules to pass a test but do not understand what they are doing or why they are doing it. Many years ago, Stanley Erlwanger published a series of interviews with students. One that stuck in my mind was with a student who was asked to compute three-fourths plus one-fourth He solved the problem in two different ways. First he wrote 3/4 + 1/4 = 4/8 = 1/2. Then he drew a circle and divided it into four quarters. Pointing to the sections of the circle, he concluded, “IVs a whole” and wrote 3/4 + 1/4 = 1. When asked, “What method did you use when you got four-eighths?” the student responded: “That’s the way that they taught me.” At one point, when asked, “How do you know which answer is right?” the student said, “It depends on which method you’re told to use, and you use that method and you come out with the answer, and that’s what answer is in the key.” When pushed to choose which is correct, he replied, “The one where you add the denominators and the numerators because that’s what method they taught me to do in my booklet, and they didn’t teach me to do it with diagrams.” The tragedy here is not that the student forgot the rule, but rather that he did not trust his own thinking. His confidence in his ability to think had been undermined by the methods of instruction. Oversimplifying the learning process is fraught with danger.
Let us be clear about what the curriculum controversy is not about. No reformer that I have ever heard of claims that children should not know basic skills. The disagreement is over whether basic skills wit be learned by rote memorization or in the context of activities that are engaging and meaningful to the student. The argument is about the relative value of understanding vs. automatically. Traditionalists tend to see learning as either memorization or operant conditioning (the stimulus/response cycle that the behaviorist school of psychology defines as learning). Progressives see it as a complex process of making sense of new information through reflection and interaction. But of course, as the history outlined above shows, the controversy is as much about the purposes of schools in a democratic society as it is about how people learn
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHES.
People on both sides of the debate regularly appeal to research in their arguments, but dismiss research that doesn’t support their beliefs. Hirsch, for example, dismisses educational research as being Inconsequential, and stresses the importance of the research of selected psychologists. Scientists, however, are not immune from bias. The highly regarded psychologist H.H. Goddard, for example. exemplified elitist values. In a series of lectures at Princeton University (1919), he spoke of the “perfect government–Aristocracy in Democracy.” A major conclusion of his lectures was that the research on intelligence showed that “the social efficiency of a group of human beings depends upon recognizing the mental limitation of each one and so organizing society that each person has work to do that is within his mental capacity.” Are we to believe that current researchers are less influenced by their values than those of the past? Is it only a coincidence that the opposition to mathematics reform increased after the nation made a commitment to achieving the democratic goal that all students would learn mathematics? The debate over curriculum is emotional for progressive educators because they believe that the way students are treated will determine the future of the society. If schools respect young people’s .ntelligence and support their ability to think for themselves, then perhaps the social and economic inlust ces, violence, genocide, and environmental degradation that have been so prevalent in the past century can be reduced even eliminated. It will be helpful in reaching this goal If educators can rid themselves and their students of the mistaken notion that some individuals or groups are better than others.
FIND ALSO:- AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017
It is not too much to hope that schools can be the leading force in making progress toward a better world. In this regard, I recall the words of Frederick Douglass, the escaped slave and liberation leader The whole history of the progress of human liberty shows that all concessions yet made to her august claims have been born of earnest struggle…. If there is no struggle there is no progress…. Power never concedes anything without a demand. It never did and it never will.” Douglass knew that learning s power. As a slave, he was forbidden to learn to read. It would be no surprise to Douglass that there is intense opposition to educational reforms that are aimed at teaching people to think for themselves. John and Evelyn Dewey wrote in 1915, “If we train our children to take orders, to do things simply because they are told to, and fail to give them confidence to act and think for themselves, we are putting an almost insurmountable obstacle in the way of overcoming the present defects of our (social) system and of establishing the truth of democratic ideas.” This is still a powerful argument for progressive education.
CLICK THE LINK:- AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 QUESTION 4 TO 5