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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017



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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 MAJOR ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE

Q.1: A) DEFINE THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE. EXPLAIN THE MAJOR ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE IN PAKISTANI CONTEXT.
Answer:
SOCIAL STRUCTURE, in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in a society interact and live together. Social structure is often treated together with the concept of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the organization of society. Although it is generally agreed that the term social structure refers to regularities in social life, its application is inconsistent. For example, the term is sometimes wrongly applied when other concepts such as custom, tradition, role, or norm would be more accurate.

Studies of social structure attempt to explain such matters as integration and trends in inequality. In the study of these phenomena, sociologists analyze organizations, social categories (such as age groups), or rates (such as of crime or birth). This approach, sometimes called formal sociology, does not refer directly to individual behavior or interpersonal interaction. Therefore, the study of social structure is not considered a behavioral science; at this level, the analysis is too abstract. It is a step removed from the consideration of concrete human behavior, even though the phenomena studied in social structure result from humans responding to each other and to their environments. Those who study social structure do, however, follow an empirical (observational) approach to research, methodology, and epistemology.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 FOR B.ED.

Social structure is sometimes defined simply as patterned social relations—those regular and repetitive aspects of the interactions between the members of a given social entity. Even on this descriptive level, the concept is highly abstract: it selects only certain elements from ongoing social activities. The larger the social entity considered, the more abstract the concept tends to be. For this reason, the social structure of a small group is generally more closely related to the daily activities of its individual members than is the social structure of a larger society. In the study of larger social groups, the problem of selection is acute: much depends on what is included as components of the social structure. Various theories offer different solutions to this problem of determining the primary characteristics of a social group.

Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 Continue

Before these different theoretical views can be discussed, however, some remarks must be made on the general aspects of the social structure of any society. Social life is structured along the dimensions of time and space. Specific social activities take place at specific times, and time is divided into periods that are connected with the rhythms of social life—the routines of the day, the month, and the year. Specific social activities are also organized at specific places; particular places, for instance, are designated for such activities as working, worshiping, eating, and sleeping. Territorial boundaries delineate these places and are defined by rules of property that determine the use and possession of scarce goods. Additionally, in any society there is a more or less regular division of labour. Yet another universal structural characteristic of human societies is the regulation of violence. All violence is a potentially disruptive force; at the same time, it is a means of coercion and coordination of activities. Human beings have formed political units, such as nations, within which the use of violence is strictly regulated and which, at the same time, are organized for the use of violence against outside groups. Furthermore, in any society there are arrangements within the structure for sexual reproduction and the care and education of the young. These arrangements take the form partly of kinship and marriage relations.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 SYMBOLIC COMMUNICATION

Finally, systems of symbolic communication, particularly language, structure the interactions between the members of any society
Major elements of social structure In Pakistan context.
(1) Values: At the top level are the societal values. These are the most general or abstract normative on conceptions of what the ideal society itself would be like.
SOCIAL
Image Courtesy: Individuals or groups are found to be emotionally committed to values. These values help to integrate personality or a system of interaction.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 GROUPS AND INSTITUTION

(2) GROUPS AND INSTITUTIONS:
Social structure can be viewed in terms of inter relationships of the component parts. Social structure includes social groups and institutions. These are called the major groups and institutions. Four of these — the family, economic institutions, political institutions and religious institutions center upon getting food and other items of wealth, procreation, worship and ruling. The community, the total organized life of a locality, is the most inclusive spontaneous grouping in the social structure. There are also the enduring phenomena of social classes, the ethnic or racial in group and the temporary grouping of crowd. These are more or less spontaneous configurations responsive to various interests that develop within the community.

Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 Organization

(3) Organizations:-
In the larger societies of modern time, human beings deliberately establish certain organizations for the pursuit of their specific ends or purposes. These organizations, very often called associations, are group manifestations of life and common interests. To quote Maclver and Page, “The associations constitute the most conspicuous part of the social structure and they gain in coherence, definite number and efficacy as the conditions of the society grow more complex”.

(4) Collectivities:-
There are specialized collectivities such as families, firms, schools, political parties etc. (Differentiated institutional patterns almost directly imply the existence of collective and role units whose activities have different kinds of functional significance).

(5) Roles:-
Finally, within all such collectivities one can distinguish types of roles. “Concretely these are the relevant performances of their individual occupants. Functionally, they are contributions to collective goal attainment”. Role occupants are expected to fulfil their obligations to other people (who are also role occupants). For example, in family the husband has obligations towards his wife. According to Nodal, the elements of social structure are roles.

(6) Norms:-
According to H.M. Johnson, sub-groups and roles are governed by social norms. Social norms are of two types: (i) obligatory or relational and (ii) permissive or regulative. Some norms specify positive obligations. But they are not commonly applied to all the roles and sub-groups For example, the positive obligations of a family are not the same as those of business firm. Some other norms specify the limit of permissible action. A role occupant of a sub-group in this case ‘must’ do certain things, ‘may’ do certain things and ‘must not do sill others. They are called regulative norms. They do not differentiate between roles and sub-groups. For example in our society, regardless of one’s role, one must not seek to influence others by threat of violence or by violence itself.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 GROUP DYNAMICS

Q.2: WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT GROUP DYNAMICS? DISCUSS THE IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES OF GROUP DYNAMICS.
Answer:-
Bruce W. Tuckman was one of the first psychologists to study and define group dynamics. In 1965. he recognized and defined the stages of group development, suggesting that groups must experience all five stages of development to reach maximum effectiveness. These stages can help you understand other basic principles that come into play with group dynamics.

Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 Group Development Stages

GROUP DEVELOPMENT STAGES:-
Tuchman first described four distinct stages but later added a fifth. Groups go through these stages subconsciously but the understanding of the stages can help groups reach the last stage effectively. The five stages are forming, storming, and norming, performing and adjourning. Although groups go through these stages in the order listed, a group can be at a later stage and go back to a previous stage before continuing forward. For example, a group might be working efficiently in the performing phase, but the arrival of a new member might force the group back into the storming stage.

COMMUNICATION:-
The communication network is another characteristic of group dynamics. An informal group uses communication processes that are simpler than those of the formal organization. In the informal group, the person who possesses the most amount of vital information frequently becomes the leader. Knowing about this group dynamic allows supervisors to provide this strategically placed leading individual with information that the group needs. Giving the group and its members relevant information encourages harmonious relationships between the supervisor and the informal group.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 ROTATIONAL LEADERSHIP

ROTATIONAL LEADERSHIP DYNAMIC:-
In informal group dynamics, rotational leadership is a specific attribute that is less common in formal organizations. An informal leader generally arises when a team member shows leadership qualities that others see as critical for a specific situation. Unlike a formally appointed group leader, the informal leader can only guide the group toward the completion of a project’s objectives. The informal leader does not possess any formal power, and the group can replace such a person if the need arises. This group dynamic phenomenon often happens subconsciously and constantly evolves during the lifetime of the group.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 GROUP NORMS
GROUP NORMS:-
Another characteristic of group dynamics is the presence of group norms and values. Defined norms, established during the norming phase, assist the group in clarifying thinking and determining which behavior patterns are acceptable. Norms also keep the group functioning as a system and measure the performance of group members.
Billson compares the classroom to a small group. She applies the principles of small group dynamics as they are studied and understood in sociology to what happens in the classroom. And she does so for this reason: “Deeper awareness of small group processes can enhance the teaching effectiveness of college faculty through improving their ability to raise student participation levels, increase individual and group motivation, stimulate enthusiasm, and facilitate communication in the classroom.” So what principles of small group dynamics might help us better understand what’s happening in our classrooms? Billson identifies and discusses 15—four are highlighted here.
Principle 1:-
Every participant in a group is responsible for the outcome of the group interaction. Billson acknowledges that the major responsibility does belong to the professor, but she maintains that students share a “significant responsibility” as well. (p. 144) She recommends discussing that responsibility with students and explores the possibility of letting students plan certain segments of the course or maybe offer input as to the weight of the course’s various assignments.

Principle 4:-
When people feel psychologically safe in a group, their participation levels will increase. This isn’t a particularly new or novel idea, but it’s something professors often take for granted. Most of us do feel safe in the classroom. We’ve been going to college classes for years. For students, classrooms don’t feel as comfortable. They can be made to feel safer when students are known by names, when their first attempts to contribute garner positive feedback, and when the professor avoids sarcasm and ridicule.

Principle 8:-
The leader of any group serves as a model for that group. “The way in which professors play their role, including how they present expectations of students, carry out responsibilities, and handle privileges implicit in the professorial role, has a profound effect on how students enact their role.”

Principle 13:-
A group will set its own norms of behavior and will expect conformity to them. These norms may extend to the professor. The same policies and procedures can be used and yet classes respond to them differently. In some classes, students argue at length about exam answers. In other classes, they want assignment deadlines extended. In many classes, a designated few become the only students who
Participate. Professors need to be aware of these norms and if they work against course goals, they should be discussed openly with students.
Although “small group” isn’t a label that feels like it fits classes with more than 100 students, even large classes exhibit many features typical of groups. Applying these principles can result in classroom climates where learning is a more likely outcome. I’d say Billson was way ahead of her time in identifying what helps to make classrooms learner-centered.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 CULTURE OF A SOCIETY
Q.3: A) HIGHLIGHT THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN PRESERVING AND PREVENTING THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY.
Answer:-
Culture gives a society or a nation its identity. Societies are indeed identifiable through their cultural expressions. Hence, every society makes efforts to preserve its particular cultural heritage by transmitting it from one generation to the next.


However, there is also the issue of the days functionality of certain aspects of traditional culture, that is, there may be aspects of traditional cultures which have proven to be no longer acceptable for some reason, e.g. they may be unhygienic or divisive, and therefore should no longer be passed on. Thus, there is a need to review and assess which aspects of culture should be preserved, renewed or discarded.
For example, in some parts of the world, female circumcision is practiced because it has been handed down as part of the cultural heritage. However, various groups now claim that the reasons given for such a practice are no longer tenable. Tribal marks have also been handed down from one generation to the next. Today tribal identification by means of facial markings has lost its validity, especially in the presence of moves to detribalize people and strive for national unity. In other parts of the world, girls and women, by virtue of their sex/gender and their roles in society, are simply not given basic educational opportunities. The traditional roles attributed to women as housekeepers and mothers keep them away from schools. Today this is considered a deprivation and an outright violation of the right to Education for All.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 CULTURE AND EDUCATION
Most likely there were agreements and disagreements in the assessments within your group discussion. This reflects another issue in the interplay between culture and education: who determines (and how) which aspects of traditional cultures have proven to be dysfunctional and should therefore no longer be transmitted? The challenge posed is to preserve what is of value in the indigenous culture and to renew what must be renewed, especially in the light of the profound influence of science and technology on society, changing even the old concepts of locality and culture. What is the role of education in this? In many parts of the world, education is regarded as a programme for social action. Schools, viewed as institutions for bringing such a programme into effect, are sometimes referred to as instruments for propagating culture. Thus culture, the arts and beliefs of a people, can be transmitted through planned activities in schools as well as through unplanned activities in the home setting. All children live within a cultural setting and can absorb aspects of this culture through both formal and informal education. In addition to those already mentioned, many other issues have been raised in relation to the culture-preservation function of schools. One such question is: can culture be preserved and transmitted from one generation to another within a closed system? In other words, how can you keep alive what is unique in your society without closing your doors to outside influences? It may be considered that some positive aspects of a foreign culture, once blended into your own, will help to propel development. Some danger I.es, however, in the possibility of an unhealthy dominance of such aspects of other cultures over your own indigenous culture. Mindful that more than fifty years have passed since every person’s right to education and to participate in the cultural life of the community was set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which also asserts that elementary education shall be compulsory and that technical and professional education shall be made generally available, Calling attention to the right to development established in the Declaration on the Right to Development, and reaffirmed at the World Conference on Human Rights held in Vienna from 14 to 25 June 1993,
Referring to the report entitled “Our Creative Diversity” by the World Commission on Culture and Development, the report “Learning: The Treasure Within” prepared for UNESCO by the International Commission cn Education for the Twenty-first Century, the World Education Forum’s Dakar Framework for Action’Education For All Meeting Our Collective Commitments”, and the conclusions of the Stockholm Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Deve opment, Aware of the many close links between education, culture, democracy and development. and stressing that ecucation and culture are the basis for both democratic participation and economic and social progress, Reaffirming its attachment to the promotion and consolidation of democracy, and acknowledging that democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms are interdependent and mutually reinforcing, and that democracy is based on the freely expressed will of the peoples to choose their own po economic, social and cultural systems and their full participation in all aspects of life, Noting that environmental issues affect both developed and developing nations and place the survival of humankind at risk.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 ECOLOGICAL
Aware of education’s potential as an engine for progress in all dimensions of development – economic, social, cultural and ecological, and also aware that stagnant education systems and undervalued cultural traditions are a threat to democracy, Stressing that the major obstacles encountered by women which are difficult to overcome by legislation are tradition and a mode of education that impose a distinction between men and women, deny women an education so condemning then to illiteracy, and maintain them in ignorance of their political rights; as well as economic obstacles, which deprive women of their right to education, Efforts to preserve resources on cultural heritage have gained new momentum throughout the world nowadays. Protecting cultural heritage is economical, as well as historical and also a cultural process. While cultural heritage preservation has not yet become firmly rooted in the Migerian consciousness as ‘football is, a great number of people and organizations see cultural resources as critical to the nation’s economic development through tourism. Cultural heritage is based on the aspects of our past that we cherish, want to keep and pass on to future generations and outside world. lowe✓er, the economic benefits of preservation are secondary to the intrinsic value of that heritage which is been preserved.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 AS OBSERVED BY SEKLER
AS RIGHTLY OBSERVED BY SEKLER (2001),
“tangible cultural heritage has the great advantage over its intangible counterpart, such that with proper care it will remain authentic ever centuries. As long as historic monuments remain without falsification and n-Is leading imitations, they will, even in a neglected state, create a sense of continuity that is an essential part o: cultural identity”

Libraries, archives, and museums hold disparate collections in a variety of media, presenting a vast body of knowledge accumulated over the institutions’ history, and the m session of these institutions is to mace their collections accessible to intended users. Then the question, what are the roles of library and info’ mation science professionals in the preservation of cultural heritage becomes relevant here? Lynch (2002) described several roles that Librarians may play in digital libraries as cigitizers of unique materials n special collections (a role also p ayed by museums and archives). Librarians are providers of such services as “virtual reference preservation and indexing, and as managers and facilitators of scholarly communications, through their participation in establishing institutional repositories’.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017
Book and Vondracek (2W6) highlighted several past involvements of libraries in the preservation of documents (reformatted or duplicated) to enhance access since medieval times when monks fastidiously transcribed documents by hard. They also indicated that libraries began massive newspaper microfilming and digitization projects to successfully reformat thousands of rare collections and crumbling newspapers as effective means of preserving print holdings. They further noted that cigitization can also be the first step in conducting advanced research on historical materials and ancient documents present a prime candidate ‘or digitization because of their historical imports, combined with century of exposure and degraded on. Dig participate. Professors need to be aware of these norms and if they work against course goals, they should be discussed openly with students. Although “small group” isn’t a labe that feels like it fits classes with more than 100 students, even large classes exhibit many features typical of groups. Applying these principles can result in classroom climates where learning is a more likely outcome. I’d say Billson was way ahead of her time in identifying what helps to make classrooms learner-centered. Q.3: a) Highlight the role of education in preserving and preventing the culture of a society. Answer: Culture gives a society or a nation its identity. Societies are indeed identifiable through their cultural expressions. Hence, every society makes efforts to preserve its particular cultural heritage by transmitting it from one generation to the next. However, there is also the issue of the days functionality of certain aspects of traditional culture, that is, there may be aspects of traditional cultures which have proven to be no longer acceptable for some reason, e.g. they may be unhygienic or divisive, and therefore should no longer be passed on. Thus, there is a need to review and assess which aspects of culture should be preserved, renewed or discarded. For example, in some parts of the world, female circumcision is practiced because it has been handed down as part of the cultural heritage. However, various groups now claim that the reasons given for such a practice are no longer tenable.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 TRIBAL INDENTIFICATION
Tribal marks have also been handed down from one generation to the next. Today tribal identification by means of facial markings has lost its validity, especially in the presence of moves to detribalize people and strive for national unity. In other parts of the world, girls and women, by virtue of their sex/gender and their roles in society, are simply not given basic educational opportunities. The traditional roles attributed to women as housekeepers and mothers keep them away from schools. Today this is considered a deprivation and an outright violation of the right to Education for All. Most likely there were agreements and disagreements in the assessments within your group discussion. This reflects another issue in the interplay between culture and education: who determines (and how) which aspects of traditional cultures have proven to be dysfunctional and should therefore no longer be transmitted? The challenge posed is to preserve what is of value in the indigenous culture and to renew what must be renewed, especially in the light of the profound influence of science and technology on society, changing even the old concepts of locality and culture. What is the role of education in this? In many parts of the world, education is regarded as a programme for social action. Schools, viewed as institutions for bringing such a programme into effect, are sometimes referred to as instruments for propagating culture.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 CULTURE, ARTS, AND BELIEFS

Thus culture, the arts and beliefs of a people, can be transmitted through planned activities in schools as well as through unplanned activities in the home setting. All children live within a cultural setting and can absorb aspects of this culture through both formal and informal education.
In addition to those already mentioned, many other issues have been raised in relation to the culture-preservation function of schools. One such question is: can culture be preserved and transmitted from one generation to another within a closed system? In other words, how can you keep alive what is unique in your society without closing your doors to outside influences? It may be considered that some positive aspects of a foreign culture, once blended into your own, will help to propel development. Some danger lies, however, in the possibility of an unhealthy dominance of such aspects of other cultures over your own indigenous culture.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 CULTURAL LIFE OF COMMUNITY.
Mindful that more than fifty years have passed since every person’s right to education and to participate in the cultural life of the community was set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which also asserts that elementary education shall be compulsory and that technical and professional education shall be made generally available, Calling attention to the right to development established in the Declaration on the Right to Development, and reaffirmed at the World Conference on Human Rights held in Vienna from 14 to 25 June 1993, also essential to offer continuing education opportunities in resources’ preservation for those whose qualifications need updating or those who wish to build on their existing knowledge. Feather (1996) has called attention to the proper handling of library materials by all of those involved as a sort of inexpensive measure by any library or archive to begin its programme of preservation, which can, at least, prevent damage to materials which would have been caused by simple ignorance. Similarly, Smith (1993) argued that proper shelving and storage are important factors in extending the life of all books. He also noted that oversize books – inordinately tall, wide, or thick – frequently have bindings that are weak in proportion to their size and weight. They cannot be stored safely on ordinary vertical shelves. Hence, they should be stored flat on broad, fixed shelves of roller shelves, with not more than three or four volumes resting on top of each other.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 PHOTOCOPYING PROCESS

Writing on library book, photocopying processes, Burdick (1993) also noted that “certain styles of copy machines help to minimize damage to bound materials. According to him, V-shaped cradle copiers that allow a volume to be copied while lying face up are not yet widely available, so the best solution is to use a machine that has a copy surface that extends to one outer edge of the machine”. Also, Ogden (1993) wrote that traditionally, libraries and archives independently have undertaken activities to preserve their collections by providing proper housing, protection from mutilation and theft, library binding, and occasional repair and restoration.

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Harvey (1993) goes on to describe strategies for preservation, which include: “clearly deterring priorities for preservation, relating preservation actions to institutional objectives, preferring methods which treat materials economic in bulk (such as mass decalcification) over those which apply only to single items, implementing the practices of preventative preservation rather than reliance on “after the event” intervention by conservation, recognizing the important role which education and training plays, and accepting that librarians cannot have the running to conservators but must take their preservation further into their own hands”.

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