Aiou solved assignment 2 for the subject course code 1431 for the semester spring 2016 for the bachelor level, means for B A or B.com classes. This is the second solved assignment for this course code 1431 for the running semester spring 2016.

ASSIGNMENT No. 02 Basic of ICT 1431 B.A/B.Com Spring, 2016

Q No 1. What is meant by computer software? Differentiate between system software and application software?

Software refers to the programs and data that instruct a computer’s hardware (or physical parts) how to work together and how to allow the computer’s user to interact with the computer.
Allows Hardware to Work Together
Software essentially is programming code that allows hardware to interface with other hardware and the user to interface with the hardware. Without software, hardware would not be able to communicate with or utilize other hardware and the user would not be able to use the device.
Operating Systems and Hardware Drivers
Operating systems are technically software because they are made up of programming code, but operating systems are so large in scope that .they are their own class of software. Hardware drivers are software that tells the operating system how to use the computer’s hardware devices.
A utility is a software program that accomplishes a task. For example, an anti-virus program is a utility that protects your computer from viruses, while the Windows Calculator is a utility that performs basic math operations. Other common computer utilities include Web browsers, email clients, registry cleaners, virtual machines, computer back-up programs and the Windows Update utility.
Most business software deals with creating and editing documents. The Microsoft Office suite is one of the best-known products in the business software category. It includes Word for word processing, Excel for spreadsheets and PowerPoint for creating presentations. Other business software types include programs for databases, customer relationship management, accounting and taxes.
Resides in Read/Write Memory or on Media
Software usually resides in ROM (read only memory) or RAM (random access memory) or on media such as a hard drive, CD or USB device. In most cases software is initially transferred to a hard drive and then used from the hard drive from then on.
Firmware Blurs the Lines
Some software resides in what is called “firmware,” which is a cross between hardware and software. Firmware is basically software encoded somehow onto hardware. It can in some cases be changed or upgraded.
System software System software is the term used to describe the programs and files that constitute the operating system- such as Microsoft Windows, Mac OSX or Linux–of a computer. System software is responsible for the management and control of computer hardware and basic system operation.
How System Software Works
System software is essential for human beings to interact with computers. System software operates at the most basic level of a computer, creating the user interface and relaying any command given to the computer to the CPU (Central Processing Unit.)
Operating System Tasks
An operating system is the most important piece of software that runs on a computer because without it other programs cannot run. Operating system tasks include recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display, and management of peripherals, such as hard disk drives and printers.
Types of System Software
System software includes file management tools, assemblers, compilers and debuggers, together with drivers–small programs that tell the operating system and other software applications how to interact with hardware–and other configuration files.
Application software
Application software is what allows users to store information, create content and media, access information and communicate. Because most of the processes of the world now run on computers, there are many types of software to handle all the functions that are required. All software applications have specific hardware requirements.
Documentation software allows users to document their work. Examples of this would be Word and PowerPoint. Media Development software allows users to create various types of media, including visual (Photoshop, Flash), audio (ProTools) and hard copy (Quark). Data Management software enables the manipulation of data (FileMaker Pro, Excel, Quicken), while content access software (iTunes, Real Player) gives users the ability to uniformly access content created by others.
Word processing software makes the creation (along with the presentation and sharing) of words much easier, while programs designed for the Internet (browsers and email software) give the ability to email information and instantly access products and services, while media creation now shortens the “publication lag” that dogged users in the past.,,In addition to the commercial software packages (most of what has been mentioned), there is shareware (a method that allows users to try software before paying with the honor system) and freeware (software that designers create as a hobby).
The Facts
Where there is a litany of different software packages and programs designed for the home user, there is a far larger (and more complex) set of software programs that run most of the world. These include enterprise wide software, testing and simulation software, business workflow software, database management software and programming software, among others.

Q No 2. What is meant by operation system? Discuss it in detail with the help of different examples.

Operating System?

An operating system is a conglomeration of software that controls the hardware of the computer and ensures that the computer can perform all its basic functions, which are necessary for all other programs to work. The operating system helps additional programs integrate with the computer so that they can run. Because the operating system is so important, it is usually the first software added to the computer. Operating systems contain a number of utilities.
A utility in an operating system is a computer program that performs a single task, usually very specific and related to only part of the operating system software. These programs work mostly with system resources such as memory and basic data flow. They often help computers organize their memory and set apart memory for applications that are added later in the life of the computer.
Operating systems have many different software programs that help them run basic processes for the computer. Some of this software users can replace or delete. Other types of software are vital to the operating system and help it function correctly. Likewise, some software is highly complex and multi-layered, while other types are simple and take up only a little space. Utilities tend to be smaller, more basic types of software. While you are pretty much free to use your Apple device as you please, there are certain things you can’t do due to Apple’s own restrictions. These restrictions are spelled out in.
Operating systems also use software known as applications, and it can sometimes be difficult to tell what the difference is. In general, utilities are smaller and simpler than applications. Applications are complex and perform many functions instead of only one, often functions that are not directly related to the basic computer structure. Word processors and datasheet programs are two of the most common applications.
There are utilities for most components of the operating system. One of the most common types is the disk drive utility, which manages the disk. Drives that the computer creates. Other utilities manage printers and other basic devices that are linked to the computer and need a direct line to computer memory.
Some utilities in operating systems may not be completely necessary, and some utilities can even be part of applications. For instance, a simple program within an application that allows it to print to multiple locations may be considered a utility, as can simple tools within an operating systems. These tools can often be added on or taken away from the operating system as desired.
Different functions of an operating system Operating systems manage user interaction with the physical resources a computer provides. Through an operating system, users are able to carry out every day computing activities including running applications, accessing websites, using email and storing files, such as data and media items. The main operating systems used on desktop and laptop computers include various versions of Microsoft Windows and Mac, plus a variety of Linux distributions, including Ubuntu. Their interfaces and approaches may vary, but the main functions within an operating system are broadly the same.
Process Management
Computing applications and functions are carried out primarily by one or more processing chips. Operating systems can appear to run several processes simultaneously, but in fact several tasks are alternated between by a single processor at a speed faster than users can detect. This allows several programs and computing activities to operate at the same time from the user’s point of view. Each application or activity runs within a single dedicated process, with the operating system scheduling and managing the processing resources between activities.
Memory Management
Operating systems use Random Access Memory to store the short-term data required for applications and other computer functions to operate. Each computing activity that is ongoing has a certain amount of memory allocated to it, which the operating system manages. In cases where an application attempts to do something that there is not enough memory for, an operating system can sometimes use virtual memory to carry out the required processing, by utilizing a section of hard disk memory and using it as though it is RAM.
File Management
Computer devices can store many different types of data, file and document. This may include personal user files, such as word processing documents, photographic images and video. Applications installed on the computer may also be associated with numerous files required when they execute. The operating system manages the storage and use of these files, including viewing, editing and deleting. Most operating systems provide a graphical user interface for user access to the file system, such as Windows Explorer or Finder on Mac OS X.
Input / Output
Computers use a variety of channels for user interaction. Computer output includes the monitor and audio speakers or headphones, while input includes the mouse and keyboard. These are the standard input / output elements in a desktop or laptop computer, while mobile devices sometimes offer additional elements. These hardware components are managed by the operating system through the use of drivers. Drivers handle communication between the user and the hardware provided within a given computing system, including capturing and interpreting user input and presenting output in response to it.
The operating system itself is a software application. In most cases, however, user access to computing resources takes place through other applications. There are some applications installed on an operating system when it is initially installed itself, but users can also install additional software either from disk or by downloading over the Web. The operating system handles the execution of applications as well as managing the resources they require, such as .cmory and input / output. Common applications include Web browsers, email clients, word processing programs and media players.

Q No 3. a) Identify basic elements of a communication system?


Effective communication plays a vital role in the success of every professional personal relationship. Becoming a skilled communicator requires you to learn the roles of every element of communication. You can use these elements in many ways, including public speaking, interpersonal relationships, media development and business relations. The basic communication model consists of five elements of communication: the sender, the receiver, the message, the channel and feedback.
Maintain Message Clarity
The sender plays the specific role of initiating communication. To communicate effectively, the sender must use effective verbal as well as nonverbal techniques. Speaking or writing clearly, organizing your points to make them easy to follow and understand, maintaining eye contact, using proper grammar and giving accurate information are all essential in the effectiveness of your message. You will lose your audience if it becomes aware of obvious oversights on your part. The sender should have some understanding of who the receiver is in order to modify the message to make it more relevant. In the basic communication model, the sender is Point A in the diagram.
Know Your Audience
The receiver means the party to whom the sender transmits the message. A receiver can be one person or an entire audience of people. In the basic communication model, the receiver, labeled Point B, is directly across from the speaker. The receiver can also communicate verbally and nonverbally. The best way to receive a message is to listen carefully, sitting up straight and making eye contact. Don’t get distracted or try to do something else while you’re listening. Nodding and smiling as you listen to the sender speak demonstrate that you understand the message.
Express Key Points
The message may be the most crucial element of effective communication. A message can come in many different forms, such as an oral presentation, a written document, an advertisement or just a comment. In the basic communication model, the arrow from Point A to Point B represents the sender’s message traveling to the receiver. The message isn’t necessarily what the sender intends it to be. Rather, the message is what the receiver perceives the message to be. As a result, the sender must not only compose the message carefully, but also evaluate the ways in which the message can be interpreted. •
Assess Your Medium
The message travels from one point to another via a channel of communication. In the diagram, the channel sits between the sender and receiver, Points A and B. Many channels, or types, of communication exist, from the spoken word to radio, television, an Internet site or something written, like a book, letter or magazine. Every channel of communication has its advantages and disadvantages. For example, one disadvantage of the written word, on a computer screen or in a book, is that the receiver cannot evaluate the tone of the message. For this reason, effective communicators word written communications clearly so they don’t rely on a specific tone of voice to convey the message accurately. The advantages of television as a channel for communication include its expansive reach to a wide audience and the sender’s ability to further manipulate the message using editing and special effects.
Welcome Feedback
The last element of effective communication, feedback, describes the receiver’s response or reaction to the sender’s message. The receiver can transmit feedback through asking questions, making comments or just supporting the message that was delivered. Feedback helps the sender to determine how the receiver interpreted the message and how it can be improved. In the basic communication model, the receiver transmits feedback from Point B back to the sender at Point A. As a result the model has a cyclical appearance, as the original receiver becomes the sender and vice versa.
Network topologies
In computer networking, topology refers to the layout of connected devices. Here is an introduction of the standard topologies of networking. Think of a topology as a network’s virtual shape or structure. This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the network. For example, th6 computers on a home LAN may be arranged in a circle in a family room, but it would be highly unlikely to find a ring topology there.
Slower Speeds:
The maximum bandwidth on these cables does not increase with the addition of each node the network operates more slowly with each new computer added. In addition, these coaxial cables are typically slower than their star topology counterparts.
Dated Technology:
Coaxial-based technologies are rarely found in modern workplaces and almost never used in homes. As a result, the technology necessary to operate a bus topology network is generally difficult to find, if it can be found at all. Network interface cards (expansion cards that plug into the inside of a computer and provide network access) with a BNC connector are often more expensive than their IU-45 counterparts.
b) Briefly explain the term: Assembler, compiler, linker and interpreter.
An assembler is a type of computer program that interprets software programs written in assembly language into machine language, code and instructions that can be executed by a computer. An assembler enables software and application developers to access, operate and manage a computer’s hardware architecture and components. An assembler is sometimes referred to as the compiler of assembly language. It also provides the services of an interpreter.
Assembler and symbolically use codes
An assembler primarily serves as the bridge between symbolically coded instructions written in assembly language and the computer processor, memory and other computational components. An assembler works by assembling and converting the source code of assembly language into object code or an object file that constitutes a stream of zeros and ones of machine code, which are directly executable by the processor.
Assemblers are classified based on the number of times it takes them to read the source code before translating it; there are both single-pass and multi-pass assemblers. Moreover, some high-end assemblers provide enhanced functionality by enabling the use of control statements, data abstraction services and providing support for object-oriented programming structures.
Generally compiling is a term which is often heard by everyone who is associated with programming, even if remotely. A compiler is a program which converts a high level language program/code into binary instructions (machine language) that our computer can interpret, understand and take the appropriate steps to execute the same. Let us take an example to understand what does the above definition means. If you ask any person who is associated with programming, that what the first program he/she wrote was, then the obvious answer would be “Hello World”. So let us also start with the same.
This most basic program prints or displays the words “Hello, World!” on the computer screen. But there is a problem. It is not that simple. Behind the curtains there is lot of complex things going. Let us peep inside these things. The hard truth is that our computer cannot understand the commands/instructions contained in a source fiie (helloworld.c), because C is a high-level language which means, it contains various characters, symbols, and words that represent complex, numbers-based instructions for eg. printf, main, header files etc. The only instructions a computer can execute are those written in machine language, consisting entirely of numbers that is the binary language in terms of 0 and I. Before our computer can run our C program, our compiler should convert our helloworld.c into an object file; then a program called a linker should convert the object file into an executable file.
Linker and Programming is the process of creating useful computer programs from human readable code. The code words that are used to create a computer program are called “source code.” This source code needs to be converted to a format that can be read by a computer to be useful. This process of conversion is called “compilation.” A crucial part of the compilation process is linking. The compiled binary executable is loaded into main memory to run.
The linker takes various parts of the compiled program and combines them to form a single executable program. Usually when large software applications are created they are written in discrete chunks, with each chunk held in a separate source code file. The job of the linker is to take each of these chunks, once they have been assembled, and combine them together into a single executable application.
An Interpreter is a program that implements or simulates a virtual machine using the base set of instructions of a programming language as its machine language. You can also think of an Interpreter as a program that implements a library containing the implementation of the basic instruction set of a programming language in machine language. An Interpreter reads the statements of a program, analyzes them and then executes them on the virtual machine by calling the corresponding instructions of the library. During an interactive interpreter session the statements are not only read, analyzed and executed but the result of the evaluation of an expression is also printed. This is also called a READ – EVAL – PRINT loop.
Important Pay attention, the READ – EVAL – PRINT loop is only entered in an interactive session. If you ask the interpreter to execute code in a file, results of expression evaluations are not printed. You have to do this by yourself.

Q No 4. Explain the basic concept of multimedia. Identify ten different examples of multimedia and also describe five of them in detail.

Through the proliferation of technology in modern-day homes, people communicate in a variety of ways through multimedia. The term “multimedia” itself can take many forms, but it always relates to the way computers present different elements. Multimedia is common on a variety of kinds of websites and if you use a computer, you use multimedia communication daily.
Communication technologies in multimedia can take an ordinary lecture or sermon and turn it into an extraordinary experience the audience will not forget. Communication technologies in multimedia such as using video, SMART boards and projector slide programs such as PowerPoint can make your communication more effective. Every person learns differently and needs various avenues of communication to receive the message effectively. Communication technologies in multimedia can cover multiple aspects of communication types such as audio and visual learning and in one presentation.
Text Communication:
Text communication encompasses a variety of forms and is one of the most common forms of multimedia communication in a computer user’s day-to-day activities. Text communication includes such areas of Internet use as reading a website, reading and writing email messages and instant messaging. Text communication is also the oldest form of multimedia communication, as the first computers displayed text only.
Image Communication:
Though images might not seem to be a form of communication in the same way that text is a form of communication, it is a legitimate form of multimedia communication that many users enjoy daily. Examples include browsing an online photo album, opening and viewing images attached to an email and looking at photos that accompany stories on news websites.
Audio Communication:
A common form of Web-based multimedia communication is audio communication. This form involves receiving a message through an audio format, such as listening to an online radio station or playing a music file. If you use the Internet to stream a radio station broadcast, for example, you are engaging in a form of audio communication. Audio communication often combines with other forms of multimedia communication. A slideshow, for example, can feature text, images and audio together.
Video Communication:
As its name indicates, video communication is a form of multimedia communication through video. It is common on many websites, including YouTube and the websites of television stations. Since high-speed Internet has become common, video communication has increased as users are able to access this form of multimedia communication. Types of video communication include .AVI, MPEG, WMV and QuickTime files.
Audio Communication
A common form of Web-based multimedia communication is audio communication. This form involves receiving a message through an audio format, such as listening to an online radio station or playing a music file. If you use the Internet to stream a radio station broadcast, for example, you are engaging in a form of audio communication. Audio communication often combines with other forms of multimedia communication. A slideshow, for example, can feature text, images and audio together.
Video Communication
As its name indicates, video communication is a form of multimedia communication through video. It is common on many websites, including YouTube and the websites of television stations. Since high-speed Internet has become common, video communication has increased as users are able to access this form of multimedia communication. Types of video communication include .AVI, MPEG, WMV and QuickTime files.

Q No 5. Write the notes ( in your won words) on the following:

Multimedia Kiosk
A multimedia kiosk is any type of large computer terminal, most often located in a public place, which the general public may use for various purposes1An ATM is a type of multimedia kiosk, for instance; a user can walk up to the terminal, insert a debit card, and withdraw money from an account without needing to interact with a bank teller or other employee. Multimedia kiosks are often found in places such as supermarkets, shopping malls, airports, and convenience stores, among others, and most feature convenient touch screens.
Though an ATM is probably the most common type of multimedia kiosk, there are many others available as well. A photo printing kiosk is very common/ These often have different functions; for instance, one may be able to insert the memory card from a digital camera. The photos will then be loaded onto the screen, where the user can individually select which photos he or she wants to print.
In addition to selecting the photos to be printed, the user may be able to make changes to size, change photos from color to black and white, or add colorful borders to the photos, among other changes. Some photo printing kiosks can print the pictures immediately, while others must be printed by a store employee, and may usually be picked up within one hour to one day. Other types of photo printing kiosks allow one to scan in a physical photo or multiple photos on a flatbed scanner, and the photo can then be manipulated, enhanced, or reprinted without damaging or changing the original.
Another type of interactive multimedia kiosk is a DVD rental kiosk. These allow customers to insert payment, generally through cash or a credit card, and select a DVD to rent. The customer may then return the DVD to the kiosk when he or she is finished watching it. These are just a few of the many different types of multimedia kiosks available, many of which can be customized for different purposes at schools or companies. Some businesses even allow their employees to clock in and out of work through the use of a multimedia kiosk. If a business wishes to add a multimedia kiosk to their location, it is up to them to purchase or rent the machine. The business is typically responsible for maintaining the kiosk, though the distributor generally offers support services for a fee as well. Many people enjoy the convenience and ease of use of a multimedia kiosk, and find that it benefits their business to have one.
Computer hardware
Computer hardware has advanced drastically since the early days when computers took up entire rooms and required teams of people to run. Modern computer systems fit in a small case and can draw power from a standard wall jack. It is important to learn about the components of your computer so that you can diagnose problems or replace equipment as it becomes outdated.
Hardware is the corporeal and tangible portion of a computer system that you interact with to take advantage of computer programs. It is distinct from software in that it is built of physical material and generally does not perform logical operations or change its state frequently. Main System The central piece of hardware for any computer is the motherboard, which is a circuit board that contains all of the sockets, slots, and chip sets that all of the other hardware devices will be connected into. The central processing unit, which handles all of the mathematical calculations that the computer needs to perform, is attached to the main socket of the motherboard. The two main companies that produce processors, AMD and Intel, each make a variety of different processor types that work with different motherboards. The random access memory attaches to slots in the motherboard and it controls the speed that computations occur.’The hard drive is the component that actually stores all of the data in the computer such as files, music or games. All of these units are run by a power supply that plugs into a wall socket. Computers with more advanced hardware will require a higher voltage power supply to run at peak efficiency. Some sort of cooling system must also be used, such as a fan or liquid cooling tubes, to prevent the other devices from overheating and shutting down. All of these components are held inside of a metal or plastic case.
High level languages
In computer science parlance, programming languages are divided into categories according to the distance in which the syntax is abstracted from the native processor instructions. Most high-level languages use a compiler to make them portable among the supported platforms. This allows the programmer to work in an English-like syntax while the compiler deals with the details of converting it into processor-specific instructions. The efficiency of modern compilers has made high-level languages more popular than the more challenging requirements of low-level tools.
Example: C++
C++ is a high-level language that maintains some of the features of a low-level language. It provides a minimally worded logical command set that is accessible for programmers on many platforms without worrying about the underlying. processor instruction set., It retains the C language ability to directly address the processor or memory hardware when necessary, a feature that many other high-level languages have done away with.
Example: COBOL Common Business Oriented Language, or COBOL, is an example of a verbose high-level language. Instructions and variables are spelled out in lengthy statements designed for the ease of reading by the programmer. The syntax is portable among the numerous platforms on which the language is supported. Though it has been updated with modern object-oriented features, it has been supplanted in recent years by other programming tools.
Computer and interpreter
Computer language processor that translates a program line-by-line (statement-by-statement) and carries out the specified actions in sequence. In contrast, an assembler or compiler completely translates a program written in a high-level language (the source program) into a machine-language program (the object program) for later execution. Whereas a compiled-program executes much faster. Than an interpreted-program, an interpreter allows examination and modification of the program while it is running (executing). People interact with computers to get work accomplished quicker and easier. As with spoken languages, people have many different computer-programming languages to communicate with computers. These computer-programming languages help bridge the gap between computers and people.
Computer languages have been developed with interpreting statements in mind. These are some of them:
A very popular, free, object oriented interpreted language created in 1991. It is.also modular which means people can add extra parts to it for others to use. You will find Python being used as the back-end processing language on web servers.
The grand-daddy of interpreted computer languages. Created nearly fifty years ago (1963) as an easy-to-learn language. Its strength is that it is interactive – it checks your code as you type it in and its syntax is simple.
This is the second type of interpreter. It compiles source code into byte code which then runs on a virtual machine. Java is very popular as the language to use for coding the business-logic within a company’s business application. For example, on on-line mortgage application form on a Building Society web site would most likely be connected to a Java server that is working through all the complex business rules for providing a customer quote.

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