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Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017
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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017


Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 for the subject information and communication technology. This aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 contains mostly information about the computer and computer devices. Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 is completed and solved by the computer professionals. Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 contains five questions and our professors team solved all the questions very carefully. Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 is now being uploading for bachelor students.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY.

QUESTION NO. 1:-
A) WHAT IS MEANT BY COMPUTER SOFTWARE? EXPLAIN IT IN DETAIL WITH THE HELP OF PROPER EXAMPLES
B) DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE.

ANSWER:-

COMPUTER SOFTWARE:-
Software is a generic term for organized collections of computer data and instructions, often broken into two major categories: system software that provides the basic non-task-specific functions of the computer, and application software which is used by users to accomplish specific tasks.

System software is responsible for controlling, integrating, and managing the individual hardware components of a computer system so that other software and the users of the system see it as a functional unit without having to be concerned with the low-level details such as transferring data from memory to disk, or rendering text onto a display. Generally, system software consists of an operating system and some fundamental utilities such as disk formatters, file managers, display managers, text editors, user authentication (login) and management tools, and networking and device control software.
Application software, on the other hand, is used to accomplish specific tasks other than just running the computer system. Application software may consist of a single program, such as an image viewer; a small collection of programs (often called a software package) that work closely together to accomplish a task, such as a spreadsheet or text processing system; a larger collection (often called a software suite) of related but independent programs and packages that have a common user interface or shared data format, such as Microsoft Office, which consists of closely integrated word processor, spreadsheet, database, etc.; or a software system, such as a database management system, which is a collection of fundamental programs that may provide some service to a variety of other independent applications.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017 COMPUTER SCIENCE.

Software is created with programming languages and related utilities, which may come in several of the above forms: single programs like script interpreters, packages containing a compiler, linker, and other tools; and large suites (often called Integrated Development Environments) that include editors, debuggers, and other tools for multiple languages.
Computer Software is a computer tool that will help computer users interact with the machine or the hardware in a computer. Without computer software’s, you will not be able to make the computer run and thus working on computers may not be as easy as it is today. There are different types of computer software and the differences lie in the usage and action they do inside the computer. To help you understand the different kinds of computer software, this article will help you by giving you the examples of computer software in each type of computer software. You may think that you do not need them but then you have to know what to buy when you need a certain software. The three types of computer software’s are systems software, for more details visit to www.viral-toolbar-builder.com programming software and applications software. Read on to know the differences. Systems Software Systems software assists you in communicating with the hardware and the computer system. Systems software is a software that is part of the computer when you purchase it.

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Example of the systems software is the operating system which helps you open the computer and interact with it. Another example is the device drivers or the software’s that sends the document to the printer or the system that helps you use the memory of the computer. Another is the windows system; for more details visit to www.text2speech-converter.com they are already in the computer when you purchase one. This helps you power up the computer. Programming software Programming software is a software used by computer engineers and computer technicians. This software helps them to write computer programs and software’s using programming languages. Users do not use programming software but because there will be no working computers without programming software’s, users may not know programming software but they need it. Programming software’s ensuring that the machine or the computer will work the way you need it.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Application software this is the software that you use. Example of application software’s includes Microsoft office applications, business software’s, accounting software’s, medical software, educational software’s and computer gaming software’s. Some of these software’s are available in the computer when you buy it, but others are optional. If the user deems it necessary to use other application software’s, you can do so by purchasing such application software and installing it in the computer. Understanding computer software’s is necessary if you would like to make your computer work advantageously for you. While you may not need to know a lot about systems software or programming software, knowing what it does helps you understand how computers work. By this understanding, you will know what to do when a problem in your computer comes out.
C) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE:-
System software and application software are computer programs. The system software is also installed during the installation of the operating system. However, the application software utilizes the capabilities of the computer on which it is installed.
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
The programs and the file that comprises the operating system are called system software. These files include configuration files, system preferences, system services, libraries of functions and the drivers for the hardware installed on the computer. The computer programs in system software include compilers, system utilities, assemblers, debuggers and file management tools.
Once you install the operating system, the system software is also installed. Program such “Software update” or “Windows update” can be used to update the system software. However, the end user does not run the system software. For example, while using the web browser, you don’t need to use the assembler program.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

System software is also called low-level software as it runs at most basic level of the computer. It just creates a graphical user interface thorough which the user can interact with hardware with the help of operating system. System software just runs at the back so you don’t need to bother about it.
The system software provides an environment to run application software and it controls the computer as well as the applications installed on the machine.
APPLICATION SOFTWARE
The subclass of a computer program which utilizes the capabilities of computer is called application software. Application here means the application software and the implementation. The example of application software programs includes media players, spreadsheets and word processors. When multiple applications are packaged together then it is called application suite.
There is a common user interface in each application suite which makes it easier for the user to learn different applications. In some cases, such as Microsoft Office, the various application programs have the ability to interact with each other. This facility is very handy for the user. For example, a user can embed the spreadsheet in a word processor using the application software. Application software cannot run without the presence of system software.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE
• System software gets installed when the operating system is installed on the computer while application software is installed according to the requirements of the user.
• System software includes programs such as compilers, debuggers, drivers, assemblers while application software includes media players, word processors, and spreadsheet programs.
• Generally, users do not interact with system software as it works in the background whereas users interact with application software while doing different activities.
• A computer may not require more than one type of system software while there may be a number of application software programs installed on the computer at the same time.
• System software can run independently of the application software while application software cannot run without the presence of the system software.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Question No.2:-
WHAT IS MEANT BY OPERATING SYSTEM? DEFINE FUNCTION OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM IN DETAIL WITH THE HELP OF DIFFERENT EXAMPLES.
Answer:-
OPERATING SYSTEM:-
An operating system (OS) is software that manages hardware sources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.
Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an ‘intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be ‘interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to super-computers and web servers.
Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, OS X, ONX, Microsoft Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS, all these except Windows, Windows phone and z/OS, share roots in UNIX.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Examples of Operating Systems:-
UNIX and UNIX-like operating systems.
Evolution of UNIX systems
UNIX was originally written in assembly language. Ken Thompson wrote B, mainly based on BCPL, based on his experience in the MULTICS project. B was replaced by C, and UNIX, rewritten in C, developed into a large, complex family of inter-related operating systems which have been influential in every modern operating system (see History).
The UNIX-like family is a diverse group of operating systems, with several major sub-categories including System V, BSD, and Linux. The name “UNIX” is a trademark of The Open Group which licenses it for use with any operating system that has been shown to conform to their definitions. “UNIX-like” is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems which resemble the original UNIX.
Unix-like systems run on a wide variety of computer architectures. They are used heavily for servers in business, as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments. Free UNIX variants, such as Linux and BSD, are popular in these areas.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Four operating systems are certified by The Open Group (holder of the Unix trademark) as Unix. HP’s HP-UX and IBM’s AIX are both descendants of the original System V Unix and are designed to run only on their respective vendor’s hardware. In contrast, Sun Micro systems’s Solaris Operating System can run on multiple types of hardware, including x86 and Spar servers, and PCs. Apple’s OS X, a replacement for Apple’s earlier (non-Unix) Mac OS, is a hybrid kernel-based BSD variant derived from Next STEP, Mach, and FreeBSD.
UNIX inter operability was sought by establishing the POSIX standard. The POSIX standard can be applied to any operating system, although it was originally created for various UNIX variants.
BSD and its descendants
The first server for the World Wide Web ran on Next STEP, based on BSD.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

A subgroup of the UNIX family is the Berkeley Software Distribution family, which includes FreeBSD, Net BSD, and Open BSD. These operating systems are most commonly found on web servers, although they can also function as a personal computer OS. The Internet owes much of its existence to BSD, as many of the protocols now commonly used by computers to connect, send and receive data over a network were widely implemented and refined in BSD. The World Wide Web was also first demonstrated on a number of computers running an OS based on BSD called Next Step.
BSD has its roots in UNIX. In 1974, University of California, Berkeley installed its first UNIX system. Over time, students and staff in the computer science department there began adding new programs to make things easier, such as text editors. When Berkeley received new VAX computers in 1978 with UNIX installed, the school’s undergraduates modified UNIX even more in order to take advantage of the computer’s hardware possibilities. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defense took interest, and decided to fund the project. Many schools, corporations, and government organizations took notice and started to use Berkeley’s version of UNIX instead of the official one distributed by AT&T.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Steve Jobs, upon leaving Apple Inc. in 1985, formed NeXT Inc., a company that manufactured high-end computers running on a variation of BSD called Next STEP. One of these computers was used by Tim Berners-Lee as the first web server to create the World Wide Web.
Developers like Keith Bostic encouraged the project to replace any non-free code that originated with Bell Labs. Once this was done, however, AT&T sued. Eventually, after two years of legal disputes, the BSD project came out ahead and spawned a number of free derivatives, such as FreeBSD and NetBSD.
OS X
The standard user interface of OS X
OS X (formerly “Mac OS X”) is a line of open core graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers. OS X is the successor to the original Mac OS, which had been Apple’s primary operating system since 1984. Unlike its predecessor, OS X is a UNIX operating system built on technology that had been developed at NeXT through the second half of the 1980s and up until Apple purchased the company in early 1997. The operating system was first released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0, with a desktop-oriented version (Mac OS X v10.0 “Cheetah”) following in March 2001. Since then, six more distinct “client” and “server” editions of OS X have been released, until the two were merged in OS X 10.7 “Lion”. The most recent version is OS X 10.9 “Mavericks”, which was announced on June 10, 2013, and released on October 22, 2013. Releases of OS X v10.0 through v10.8 are named after big cats. Starting with v10.9, “Mavericks”, OS X versions are named after inspirational places in California.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Prior to its merging with OS X, the server edition — OS X Server — was architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart and usually ran on Apple’s line of Macintosh server hardware. OS X Server included work group management and administration software tools that provide simplified access to key network services, including a mail transfer agent, a Samba server, anLDAP server, a domain name server, and others. With Mac OS X v10.7 Lion, all server aspects of Mac OS X Server have been integrated into the client version and the product re-branded as “OS X” (dropping “Mac” from the name). The server tools are now offered as an application.
Linux and GNU
Linux (or GNU/Linux) is a Unix-like operating system that was developed without any actual UNIX code, unlike BSD and its variants. Linux can be used on a wide range of devices from supercomputers to wristwatches. The Linux kernel is released under an open source license, so anyone can read and modify its code. It has been modified to run on a large variety of electronics. Although estimates suggest that Linux is used on 1.82% of all personal computers, it has been widely adopted for use in servers and embedded systems (such as cell phones). Linux has superseded Unix in most places,[which?] and is used on the 10 most powerful supercomputers in the world. The Linux kernel is used in some popular distributions, such as Red Hat, Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Google’s Android.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

The GNU project is a mass collaboration of programmers who seek to create a completely free and open operating system that was similar to UNIX but with completely original code. It was started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, and is responsible for many of the parts of most Linux variants. Thousands of pieces of software for virtually every operating system are licensed under the GNU General Public License. Meanwhile, the Linux kernel began as a side project of Linus Torvalds, a university student from Finland. In 1991, Torvalds began work on it, and posted information about his project on a newsgroup for students and programmers. He received a wave of support and volunteers who ended up creating a full-fledged kernel. Programmers from GNU took notice, and members or both projects worked to integrate the finished GNU parts with the Linux kernel in order to create a full-fledged operating system.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

GOOGLE CHROMIUM OS
Chromium is an operating system based on the Linux kernel and designed by Google. Since Chromium OS targets computer users who spend most of their time on the Internet, it is mainly a web browser with limited ability to run local applications, though it has a built-in file manager and media player. Instead, it relies on Internet applications (or Web apps) used in the web browser to accomplish tasks such as word processing. Chromium OS differs from Chrome OS in that Chromium is open-source and used primarily by developers whereas Chrome OS is the operating system shipped out in Chrome books.
Microsoft Windows
THE USB FLASH DRIVE
Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems designed by Microsoft and primarily targeted to Intel architecture based computers, with an estimated 88.9 percent total usage share on Web connected computers. The newest version is Windows 8.1 for workstations and Windows Server 2012 R2 for servers. Windows 7 recently overtook Windows XP as most used OS.
Microsoft Windows originated in 1985 as an operating environment running on top of MS-DOS, which was the standard operating system shipped on most Intel architecture personal computers at the time. In 1995, Windows 95 was released which only used MS-DOS as a bootstrap. For backwards compatibility, Win9x could run real-mode MS-DOS and 16 bits Windows 3.x [24] drivers. Windows ME, released in 2000, was the last version in the Win9x family. Later versions have all been based on the Windows NT kernel. Current client versions of Windows run on IA-32, x86-64 and 32-bit ARM microprocessors. In addition Itanium is still supported in older server version Windows Server 2008 R2. In the past, Windows NT supported additional architectures.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Server editions of Windows are widely used. In recent years, Microsoft has expended significant capital in an effort to promote the use of Windows as a server operating system. However, Windows’ usage on servers is not as widespread as on personal computers, as Windows competes against Linux and BSD for server market share.
OTHER
There have been many operating systems that were significant in their day but are no longer so, such as Amiga0S; 05/2from IBM and Microsoft; Mac OS, the non-Unix precursor to Apple’s Mac OS X; BeOS; XTS-300; RISC OS; MorphOS; Haiku;BareMetal and Free Mint. Some are still used in niche markets and continue to be developed as minority platforms for enthusiast communities and specialist applications. OpenVMS formerly from DEC, is still under active development by Hewlett-Packard. Yet other operating systems are used almost exclusively in academia, for operating systems education or to do research on operating system concepts. A typical example of a system that fulfills both roles is MINIX, while for example Singularity is used purely for research.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Other operating systems have failed to win significant market share, but have introduced innovations that have influenced mainstream operating systems, not least Bell Labs’ Plan 9.
HYBRID OPERATING SYSTEM
Console OS runs natively on Intel’s x86 architecture, so is not an emulator, runs Windows as usual and with a toggle in 10 seconds can uses real Android apps. Console OS can runs in PC and Intel Tablet with Windows

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM
There are Many Functions those are Performed by the Operating System But the Main Goal of Operating System is to Provide the Interface between the user and the hardware Means Provides the Interface for Working on the System by the user. The various Functions those are Performed by the Operating System are as Explained below:-

OPERATING SYSTEM AS A RESOURCE MANAGER
Operating System Also Known as the Resource Manager Means Operating System will Manages all the Resources those are Attached to the System means all the Resource like Memory and Processor and all the Input output Devices those are Attached to the System are Known as the Resources of the Computer System and the Operating system will Manage all the Resources of the System. The Operating System will identify at which Time the CPU will perform which Operation and in which Time the Memory is used by which Programs. And which Input Device will respond to which Request of the user means When the Input and Output Devices are used by the which Programs. So this will manage all the Resources those are attached to the Computer System.

STORAGE MANAGEMENT
Operating System also Controls the all the Storage Operations means how the data or files will be Stored into the computers and how the Files will be Accessed by the users etc. All the Operations those are Responsible for Storing and Accessing the Files is determined by the Operating System Operating System also Allows us Creation of Files, Creation of Directories and Reading and Writing the data of Files and Directories and also Copy the contents of the Files and the Directories from One Place to Another Place.
1) Process Management: The Operating System also Treats the Process Management means all the Processes those are given by the user or the Process those are System’s own Process are Handled by the Operating System. The Operating System will create the Priorities foe the user and also Start or Stops the Execution of the Process and Also Makes the Child Process after dividing the Large Processes into the Small Processes.
2) Memory Management: Operating System also Manages the Memory of the Computer System means Provide the Memory to the Process and Also Deal locate the Memory from the Process. And also defines that if a Process gets completed then this will deal locate the Memory from the Processes.
3) Extended Machine : Operating System also behaves like an Extended Machine means Operating system also Provides us Sharing of Files between Multiple Users, also Provides Some Graphical Environments and also Provides Various Languages for Communications and also Provides Many Complex Operations like using Many Hardware’s and Software’s.
4) Mastermind: Operating System also performs Many Functions and for those Reasons we can say that Operating System is a Mastermind. It provides Booting without an Operating System and Provides Facility to increase the Logical Memory of the Computer System by using the Physical Memory of the Computer System and also provides various Types of Formats Like NTFS and FAT F le Systems.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Operating System also controls the Errors those have been Occurred into the Program and Also Provides Recovery of the System when the System gets Damaged Means When due to Some Hardware Failure , if System Doesn’t Works properly then this Recover the System and also Correct the System and also Provides us the Backup Facility. And Operating System also breaks the large program into the Smaller Programs those are also called as the threads. And execute those threads one by one.

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