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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 SPRING 2017 COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
Q 01: WHAT IS MEANT BY COMPUTER SOFTWARE? DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE.
Definition Computer software is a general term that describes computer programs. Related terms such as software programs, applications, scripts, and instruction sets, all fall under the category of computer software.
Software means computer instructions or data. Anything that can be stored electronically is software, in contrast to storage devices and display devices which are called hardware. Organized information in the form of operating systems, utilities, programs, and applications that enable computers to work.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICA6TION SOFTWARE:-
System software:- is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software. Example of system software: Microsoft Windows, Apple OS.
Application software:- also known as an application or an “app”, is designed to perform specific data processing or computational tasks for the user. These programs are specifically designed to meet end-user requirements. (e.g.: spreadsheets, word processors, media players and database applications). Example of application software: Microsoft Word, Apple iTunes.
The Difference between system software and application software is that, system software can run independently of the application software, while application software cannot run without the presence of the system software. System software gets installed when the operating system is installed on the computer, while application software is installed according to the Requirements of the user.
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Application software is computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks.
System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software.
It is specific purpose software.
It is general-purpose software.
• Package Program, • Customized Program
• Time Sharing,
• Resource Sharing,
• Client Server
• Batch Processing Operating System
• Real time Operating System
• Multi-processing Operating System
• Multi-programming Operating System
• Distributed Operating System
Application Software performs in a environment which created by System/Operating System
System Software Create his own environment to run itself and run other application.
5):- Execution Time
It executes as and when required.
It executes all the time in computer.
Application is not essential for a computer.
System software is essential for a computer
The number of application software is much more than system software.
The number of system software is less than application software.
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Q 2: WHAT IS MEANT BY OPERATING SYSTEM? DEFINE IT IN DETAIL WITH THE HELP OF DIFFERENT EXAMPLES.
Answer: OPERATING SYSTEM:-
An operating system is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all the other programs in a computer. The other programs are called applications or application programs. The application programs make use of the operating system by making requests for services through a defined application program interface (API). In addition, users can interact directly with the operating system through a user interface such as a command language or a graphical user interface (GUI).
An operating system or OS is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. Without a computer operating system, a computer and software programs would be useless. In the picture to the right, is an example of Microsoft Windows XP, a popular operating system and what the box may look like if you were to visit a local retail store to purchase it.
The operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. For large systems, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic cop – it makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system.
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Operating systems can be classified as follows:-
• Multi-user: Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users.
• Multiprocessing : Supports running a program on more than one CPU.
• Multitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently.
• Multi threading : Allows different parts of a single program to run concurrently.
• Real time: Responds to input instantly. General-purpose operating systems, such as DOS and UNIX, are not real-time.
Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run. The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating system. Your choice of operating system, therefore, determines to a great extent the applications you can run. For PCs, the most popular operating systems are DOS, OS/2, and Windows, but others are available, such as Linux.
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As a user, you normally interact with the operating system through a set of commands. For example, the DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and RENAME for copying files and changing the names of files, respectively. The commands are accepted and executed by a part of the operating system called the command processor or command line interpreter. Graphical user interfaces allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the screen.
Examples of computer operating systems:-
• Microsoft Windows 7 – PC and IBM compatible operating system. Microsoft Windows is the most commonly found and used operating system.
• Apple MacOS – Apple computer operating system. The only Apple computer operating system.
• Ubuntu Linux – A popular variant of Linux used with PC and IBM compatible computers.
• Google Android – operating system used with Android compatible phones.
• iOS – Operating system used with the Apple iPhone.
FUNCTIONS OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM:-
An operating system is a group of computer programs that coordinates all the activities among computer hardware devices. It is the first program loaded into the computer by a boot program and remains in memory at all times. The basic functions of an operating system are:
i. Booting the computer
ii. Performs basic computer tasks e.g. managing the various peripheral devices e.g. mouse, keyboard
iii. Provides a user interface, e.g. command line, graphical user interface (GUI)
iv. Handles system resources such as computer’s memory and sharing of the central processing unit (CPU) time by various applications or peripheral devices
v. Provides file management which refers to the way that the operating system manipulates, stores, retrieves and saves data.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 SPRING 2017 COMPUTER INFORMATION
Q 3 A): IDENTIFY BASIC ELEMENTS OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM. B): BRIEFLY EXPLAIN THE TERMS: ASSEMBLER, COMPILER, LINKER AND INTERPRETER.
BASIC ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEM:-
There are three essential parts of any communication system, the transmitter, transmission channel, and receiver. Each parts plays a particular role in signal transmission, as follows: The transmitter processes the input signal to produce a suitable transmitted signal suited to the characteristics of the transmission channel. Signal processing for transmissions almost always involves modulation and may also include coding.
• THE TRANSMITTER:- which processes the input signal to produce a transmitted signal suited to the characteristics of the transmission channel. Signal processing for transmission almost always includes modulation and may include coding. The transmitter processes the input signal to produce a suitable transmitted signal suited to the characteristics of the transmission channel. Signal processing for transmissions almost always involves modulation and may also include coding.
• THE TRANSMISSION CHANNEL:- which is the electrical medium that bridges the distance from source to destination. It may be a pair of wires, coaxial cable, or a radio wave or laser beam. Every channel experiences some amount of transmission loss or attenuation, so the signal power progressively decreases with increasing distance. The transmission channel is the electrical medium that bridges the distance from source to destination. It may be a pair of wires, a coaxial cable, or a radio wave or laser beam. Every channel introduces some amount of transmission loss or attenuation. So, the signal power progressively decreases with increasing distance.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 SPRING 2017 COMPUTER
• THE RECEIVER:- operates on the output signal from the channel in preparation for delivery to the transducer at the destination. Receiver operations include amplification to compensate for transmission loss, and demodulation and decoding to reverse the signal-processing performed at the transmitter. Filter is another important function of the receiver. The receiver operates on the output signal from the channel in preparation for delivery to the transducer at the destination. Receiver operations include amplification to compensate for transmission loss. These also include demodulation and decoding to reverse the signal procession performed at the transmitter. Filtering is another important function at the receiver. The figure represents one-way or simplex (SX) transmission. Two way communication of course requires a transmitter and receiver at each end. A full-duplex (FDX) system has a channel that allows simultaneous transmission in both directions. A half-duplex (IIDX) system allows transmission in either direction but not at the same time.
ELEMENTS OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
1):- ASSEMBLER:- An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer’s processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and others use the term assembly language. An assembler is a type of computer program that interprets software programs written in assembly language into machine language, code and instructions that can be executed by a computer. An assembler enables software and application developers to access, operate and manage a computer’s hardware architecture and components. An assembler is sometimes referred to as the compiler of assembly language. It also provides the services of an interpreter.
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2):- COMPILER:- A program that translates source code into object code. The compiler derives its name from the way it works, looking at the entire piece of source code and collecting and reorganizing the instructions. A compiler is a software program that compiles program source code files into an executable program. It is included as part of the integrated development environment IDE with most programming software packages. The compiler takes source code files that are written in a high-level language, such as C, BASIC and Java and compiles the code into a low-level language, such as machine code or assembly code. This code is created for a specific processor type, such as and Intel Pentium or PowerPC. The program can then be recognized by the processor and run from the operating system. After a compiler compiles source code files into a program, the pi-ogram cannot be modified. Therefore, any changes must be made in the source code and the program must be recompiled. Fortunately, most modern compilers can detect what changes were made and only need to recompile the modified files, which saves programmers a lot of time. This can help reduce programmers’ 100 hour work weeks before project deadlines to around 90 or so. A compiler differs from an interpreter, which analyzes and executes each line of source code in succession, without looking at the entire program. The advantage of interpreters is that they can execute a program immediately. Compilers require some time before an executable program emerges. However, programs produced by compilers run much faster than the same programs executed by an interpreter.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 SPRING 2017 COMPUTER REQUIREMENTS
3):- LINKER:- The linker is a program that makes executable files. The linker resolves linkage issues, such as the use of symbols or identifiers which are defined in one translation unit and are needed from other translation units. Symbols or identifiers which are needed outside a single translation unit have external linkage. A linker is a program that combines object modules to form an executable program. Many programming languages allow you to write different pieces of code, called modules, separately. This simplifies the programming task because you can break a large program into small, more manageable pieces. Eventually, though, you need to put all the modules together. This is the job of the linker. In addition to combining modules, a linker also replaces symbolic addresses with real addresses. Therefore, you may need to link a program even if it contains only one module. In short, the linker’s job is to resolve references to undefined symbols by finding out which other object defines a symbol in question, and replacing placeholders with the symbol’s address. Of course, the process is more complicated than this; but the basic ideas apply. Linkers can take objects from a collection called a library. Depending on the library (system or language or external libraries) and options passed, they may only include its symbols that are referenced from other object files or libraries. Libraries for diverse purposes exist, and one or more system libraries are usually linked in by default. We will take a closer look into libraries on the Libraries Section of this book.
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4):- Interpreter An interpreter is a program that reads and executes code. This includes source code, pre-compiled code, and scripts. Common interpreters include Perl, Python, and Ruby interpreters, which execute Perl, Python, and Ruby code respectively. Interpreters and compilers are similar, since they both recognize and process source code. However, a compiler does not execute the code like an interpreter does. Instead, a compiler simply converts the source code into machine code, which can be run directly by the operating system as an executable program. Interpreters bypass the compilation process and execute the code directly. Since interpreters read and execute code in a single step, they are useful for running scripts and other small programs. Therefore, interpreters are commonly installed on Web servers which allow developers to run executable scripts within their WebPages.
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These scripts can be easily edited and saved without the need to recompile the code. While interpreters offer several advantages for running small programs, interpreted languages also have some limitations. The most notable is the fact that interpreted code requires an interpreter to run. Therefore, without an interpreter, the source code serves as a plain text file rather than an executable program. Additionally, programs written for an interpreter may not be able to use built-in system functions or access hardware resources like compiled programs can. Therefore, most software applications are compiled rather than interpreted.
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