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# AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017

Aiou solved assignment 2 code 8601 spring 2017 general method of teaching. All B.Ed. students visit our website for aiou solved assignment 2 code 8601 spring 2017. General method of teaching subject explains the main ways or methods that how to teach the children. The aiou solved assignment 2 code 8601 spring 2017 totally related with these topics. B.Ed. students especially first semester is compulsory to submit this assignment.

## AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING

Q. 1 a) Differentiate between inductive and deductive reasoning.
DEFINITION OF INDUCTIVE REASONING: In research, inductive reasoning alludes to the logical process, in which specific instances or situations are observed or analyzed to establish general principles. In this process, the multiple propositions are believed to provide strong evidence, for the truth of the conclusion. It is used to develop an understanding, on the basis of observing regularities, to ascertain how something works. These are uncertain arguments; that describes the extent to which the conclusions drawn on the basis of premises, are credible.
In inductive reasoning, there are certain possibilities that the conclusion drawn can be false, even if the all the assumptions are true. The reasoning vests on experience and observations that support the apparent truth of the conclusion. Further, the argument can be strong or weak, as it only describes the likelihood of the inference, to be true.
DEFINITION OF DEDUCTIVE REASONING: Deductive Reasoning means a form of logic in which specific inferences are drawn from multiple premises (general statements). It establishes the relationship between the proposition and conclusion. When all the proposed statements are true, then the rules of deduction are applied and the result obtained is inevitably true. Deductive logic is based on the fundamental law of reasoning, i.e. if X then Y. It implies the direct application of available information or facts, to come up with new information or facts. In this, the researcher takes into account a theory and generates a hypothesis, which can be tested, after that the observation are recorded, which leads to particular data, which is nothing but the confirmation of validity.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING.

KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING: The points provided below, clarifies the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning in detail:
1. The argument in which the premises give reasons in support of the probable truth of the conjecture is inductive reasoning. The elementary form of valid reasoning, wherein the proposition provide the guarantee of the truth of conjecture, is deductive reasoning.
2. While inductive reasoning uses the bottom-up approach, deductive reasoning uses a top-down approach.
3. The initial point of inductive reasoning is the conclusion. On the other hand, deductive reasoning starts with premises.
4. The basis of inductive reasoning is behavior or pattern. Conversely, deductive reasoning depends on facts and rules.
5. Inductive reasoning begins with a small observation, that determines the pattern and develops a theory by working on related issues and establish the hypothesis. In contrast, deductive reasoning begins with a general statement, i.e. theory which is turned to the hypothesis, and then some evidence or observations are examined to reach the final conclusion.
6. In inductive reasoning, the argument supporting the conclusion, may or may not be strong. On the contrary, in deductive reasoning, the argument can be proved valid or invalid.
7. Inductive reasoning moves from specific to general. Unlike, deductive reasoning moves from general to particular.
8. In inductive reasoning, the inferences drawn are probabilistic. As opposed, in deductive reasoning. The generalization made are necessarily true, if the premises are correct.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 COMBINATION OF INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE METHODS.

B) DEVELOP A LESSON PLAN USING COMBINATION OF INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE METHODS.
Introduction: Throughout the years I have used inductive teaching methods to teach students concepts and generalizations.
I present students with data, ask them to make observations of that data, and on the basis of those observations, I ask students to state the concept or generalization that I’m teaching. I have found this to be an effective teaching strategy because it encourages participation, which helps any activity to be more interesting.
As you know, the more interesting an activity is, the easier it is to get students focused and involved in the lesson. The inductive teaching method is also effective for developing perceptual and observational skills. Students not only learn content but they learn how to process data and how to use it to arrive at appropriate conclusions. This teaching method involves three general initiatives: planning the activity, executing the activity, and evaluating the outcome.

PLANNING THE ACTIVITY: First, I determine the concept or generalization to be taught. For the purpose of this brief demonstration, I will select the generalization, “The end punctuation mark is placed inside the quotation mark in direct quotations.” With the point of the lesson firmly in mind, I select examples that support this generalization. I prepare a list of sentences that illustrates correctly punctuated sentences in direct quotations. I open Microsoft Word on my laptop and turn on the digital projector that’s connected to it. I’m ready to begin the lesson.

Executing the Activity I begin by typing my first example sentence: “Stop!” Shannon’s father yelled as the girl ran toward the street.
I say to the class, “Tell me what you rotice about this sentence ” The first student says, “It’s written in English.” “You’re absolutely right!” I respond enthusiastically, as I type his response for all to see. “What else do you notice about this sentence?” Someone else says, “It has eleven words in it.” “Does it? Let’s see,” I respond. I look at the screen and count the words out loud. Then I say, “Well, yes it does! You are correct!” Then I type that observation on the screen.
Of course, what I have collected up to this point, has very little to do with punctuation in direct quotations. But, by encouraging students to make observations, I am helping them to develop their observational skills and encouraging them to participate–even those who don’t normally do so. I continue collecting observations, and we end up with this:

### AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 B.ED. BACHELORS

Once I’ve gotten into this portion of the lesson, students can sense that we are on the verge of some kind of discovery. At this point, I return to the original example sentences and say, “Many of you have correctly observed that all of these statements have both quotation marks and punctuation. Let’s take a closer look at that. When it comes to quotation marks and punctuation, how are all of these sentences alike?” Then, I continue recording their observations, which for the sake of brevity, are not included here. Eventually, students will observe and correctly infer that a pair of quotation marks indicates that someone is speaking. They may infer that a comma is sometimes used to introduce a direct quotation. They may also infer that the first word in a direct quotation is capitalized. All of these inferences were not part of my target generalization, but they are valid nevertheless. Some groups of students require more probing than others. I persist. Even if I have to drag it out of them by asking, “As your language arts teacher, what other point about quotation marks and punctuation would you suppose I’m trying to make here? Eventually, a student will say, “The end mark comes before the last quotation mark in the sentence.” He gets it. I celebrate the moment. All of them get it. I can see it in their eyes. To provide closure, I ask students to state what we have learned today. I type these sentences as the students generate them: A pair of quotation marks indicates that someone is speaking. The first word in a direct quotation is capitalized. A comma is sometimes used to introduce a direct quotation. End marks of punctuation appear before the last quotation mark. The learning activity is now complete. We, as a class, have discovered some universal truths about the written English language. Now, it’s time for an evaluation.
Evaluating the Activity: As you can imagine, work time for this class involves handling direct quotations. I have a couple of options here–I can present them with a series of multiple-choice questions that require them to select the sentences that are punctuated correctly. Or, I can ask them to correct sample sentences. Either way, I have a means for evaluating individual effort. Additionally, I may find that some students need further explanation or additional practice– both of which I provide as needed.
Conclusion: This inductive teaching method is, without a doubt, my favorite strategy to use with kids. It’s an excellent way to teach concepts and generalizations. It’s also an effective way to motivate students because this teaching method promotes participation, it has the potential to involve the maximum number of students as possible in the activity. Although the example presented here focused on language arts, the inductive teaching method is ideal for any subject area, at any grade level.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 ACTIVITY METHODS

Q. 2 What is an activity? Discuss the importance of activity and methods. Name different types of activities you would use in English.
Activity: The quality or state of being active: behavior or actions of a particular kind physical activity criminal activity economic activity Importance of Activity and Methods: As the name suggest Activity based learning is gaining knowledge by doing activities. In this methodology students rather than attending the classes given by teachers, they use their creative dynamism to guide them through the activity based material. There is strong lobby supporting either learning channel. People who support traditional ways of learning strongly feels that it worked for them, for their parents, similarly it will work well for their child as well. Another section of society feels otherwise and strongly advocates for activity based learning. Let’s see what are the general advantages and disadvantages we have come across:
Each child has its own speed to grasp things, activity based learning allows kid to learn fundamentals at their own speed.
Horizon of learning is pretty wise, it facilitates learning in groups, and mutual learning. Also it has a place for self-learning. It allows teacher’s to devote time to individual student needs. Since its activity based and kid is involved in the process – their participation allows them to pick fundamentals fast.
There is no concept of unit test etc., Evaluation is inbuilt in the system which makes it quite child friendly. On completing the activity, child has a feeling of sense of accomplishment which boosts child’s confidence. Games are needless to say create more buzz among children. Creative and communicative skills are bound to groom in this way of learning. There is feeling of interaction between teacher and the child, it helps in reducing the barrier between the two. Now let’s look at some disadvantages which is not allowing activity based learning mushroom it to the huge extent. It’s important to learn facts right. If fundamentals and facts are not known, it doesn’t help in arguments and debates. Same goes for learning any foreign language. There are not many disadvantages however shortcomings are big enough which makes traditional learning and activity based learning system as complementary mechanism, rather than substituting them completely. If judiciously both the techniques are blended and child is taught it can do wonders.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 TYPES OF ACTIVITIES.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF ACTIVITIES THAT I WOULD USE IN ENGLISH:
The good news is that there are many activities that will enable you to spend less time talking and more time getting your students engaged in the classroom. Here is a list of fourteen student engagement strategies from Reading Horizons Reading Specialist, Stacy Hurst that you can use to increase student engagement in your classroom
1. Pretest with a Partner
This is a great activity, especially for Ells. Before handing out the pretest let your students know that the test will not be scored, that way we can lower anxiety and increase engaged learning. Pair students up for the pretest, then have them use the same set of materials for that pretest. If it’s on the computer, simply have them share a computer between the two of them. During the pretest walk around the room so you can gauge your students’ needs and adjust the esson accordingly. Make sure that the pretest is very similar to the posttest so you can see how much was actually retained during the direct instruction.

2. Stand Up Sit Down Teachers can use this to help students differentiate between any two categories. For instance, when a teacher is trying to help her students distinguish between common nouns and proper nouns, she would give an example then instruct them to either stand up if it is a common noun or sit down if it is a proper noun. This is a great way to see how much of your class is actually grasping the material. Ws also a great way to get your students’ blood flowing to keep them alert and engaged.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 THUMBS UP THUMBS DOWN

2. Thumbs Up Thumbs Down I do this when I do teacher trimmings all the time. You instruct students to put their thumbs up if they agree or put their thumbs down if they disagree. It’s a very quick way to see how students are doing. However, when students have a low energy level (i.e. right after lunch) Stand Up Sit Down may be a better alternative. On the other hand, if you need to maintain your students’ current energy level Thumbs Up Thumbs Down is ideal.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 SECRET ANSWER
4. Secret Answer I love this activity because it’s great for students that might not be as confident in their answers. These students are the ones that if you were doing Stand Up Sit Down or Thumbs Up Thumbs Down as a class, they would be looking around the room to see what other students’ answers are before they would answer it themselves. To do the exercise properly, have your students place their hand near their heart (physically) and hold up the appropriate number of fingers depending on what their answer is. This way, especially if all the students are facing the teacher, it is difficult for students to copy their neighbor’s answer.
5. Response Cards This is another great way to get your students involved during class time. And frankly, sometimes it’s nice to just mix things up a bit. You can use Response Cards for any number of responses, including: agree/disagree, true/false, yes/no, greater than/less than, multiple choice, and emotions. For example, while reading a book together as a class the teacher may pause and ask her students what they think the character is feeling right now. Then the students would be able to select happy from their personal stack of cards.
6. Think-Pair-Share This activity is a great way for students to be able to pause and process what they have just learned. Ask the class a question that they must first consider by themselves then give them the opportunity to discuss it with their neighbor. Once they’ve discussed the question, students are then invited to share their answers with the class. By giving them this time, you are enabling them to be more engaged in their learning.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 TEACHING METHODS

7. Quick Writes Studies show that the proper ratio of direct instruction to reflection time for students is ten to two. That means that for every ten minutes of instruction teachers need to provide students with two minutes for reflection. This activity is a great way to provide students with that much needed reflection time! In this activity, the teacher asks a question about a topic or concept that has just been taught. Then the student produces a written response and either shares it with a neighbor or is invited to share it with the entire class.
8. One Word Splash Although this activity is one that most teachers are pretty much unfamiliar with, it’s a very effective way to help students process what they’ve already learned. After explaining new material, ask your students to write down one word to sum up that material. Now, you might think that writing down one word is overly simplistic but it actually requires higher processing skills that will help your students digest their learning. This can be done either with a pencil and paper or a dry erase marker and personal whiteboard for each student
9. Quick Draw This activity is great, especially for visual learners or students that aren’t quite writing yet. After learning a new concept or topic, have your students draw a picture about what they’ve just learned. For example, after reading part of the story: Jack and the Bean Stalk, have your students draw what has happened in the story up to that point. Then a student may draw a picture of a boy planting seeds with a bean stalk growing in the background. 10. Gallery Walk This is another great activity that will keep your students engaged and their energy level high. After having your students write or draw their responses, and have a Gallery Walk and allow your students to look around the room and see other students’ responses. Because students seek approval from their peers they will put more effort into the exercise.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 CLASS ROOM DISCUSSION
Q.3 WHAT ARE THE STEPS TO PLAN DISCUSSION? EXPLAIN ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CLASS ROOM DISCUSSION.
Steps to Plan Discussion: Discussion groups come in numerous forms, including:
• committee discussions
• internal corporate meetings
• customer strategy sessions
• industry or academic conference panels
• brainstorming sessions
• classroom discussions
• book clubs Discussion groups also range widely in terms of:
• group size — 5, 50, or 500?
• length — 20 minutes, 1 day, or several weeks?
• setting — living room, classroom, boardroom, conference room, political chambers
• consequences — discussion between friends versus international policy repercussions Despite this diversity, all successful group discussions share one trait: a competent discussion leader. Leading a discussion is an essential skill for a well-rounded speaker. In this article, we focus on how to plan a great group discussion.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 GROUP DISCUSSION

1. Set clear objectives. Prepare a list of clear objectives for the discussion. It may help to complete the following sentence: This group discussion will be a success if How many objectives should you have? It depends.
• For a book club, a reasonable set of objectives might be to [1J share perspectives on the book and [2] have fun.
• For a corporate discussion session, your objectives probably tie to business needs or outcomes. These objectives will frame everything else you do, so take your time and get them right. Don’t rush it! If you have formal stakeholders (e.g. the “sponsor” of the group discussion), seek approval on the objectives before doing anything else.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 realistic schedule

2. Set a realistic schedule. Discussion sessions come in all shapes and sizes. Your session might be half an hour or an entire week; it might be set within a political context that requires careful steps, or it might be an informal, entertaining event. Whatever the case, set a realistic schedule that can — under your leadership — be achieved. For sessions longer than an hour or two:
• Break it up into manageable blocks and assign each block to specific topics. Planning down to 30, 60, or 90-minute blocks usually works well for me
• Remember to account for meals and other breaks. These will consume a significant portion of your overall time. (In a typical 8-hour session, about two hours are “lost” to lunch and breaks.) Verify that the objectives are achievable in the time allotted. If they are not, either lengthen the schedule or narrow your objectives. You can’t solve global geopolitical problems in a two-hour session.

3. Invite the right people. For corporate and organizational discussion groups, the list of participants can be highly political and depends upon many factors. Use your influence to insist that the “right” people participate. Ensure that your objectives can be met by the people in the room.

Who are the “right” people? There’s no simple answer, but a good rule of thumb is to make sure that all perspectives are represented in the room. For example, a corporate group discussing a new employee benefits program might require representatives from manufacturing, sales, marketing, accounting, and human resources. When you can, choose people who :1 have a wealth of experience, [2] are good communicators, and [3] are inclined towards collaboration.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 DISCUSSION CONDUCT

4:- Establish the rules of engagement. Decide how the discussion will be conducted to best meet the objectives:
• How should participants speak up?
• Will they be called upon to speak?
• Are formal procedures in place?
• Will minutes be taken?
• Is parliamentary procedure being used?
• Will there be a mix of presentation and discussion? Tune the level of formality to the audience and occasion. Formal procedures may be warranted if there are heavy legal or financial consequences. For many discussions, however, you only need to remind people to be respectful and participate honestly. Don’t impose unnecessary rules on your group — they will only resent you.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 continued

5. Be the most prepared participant. As the leader, your preparation must be strong. In addition to the logistics and schedule, you must prepare lower-level topics, questions to ask, visuals and props, and your general strategy. Think about when you might go to the whiteboard, or when you might show something previously prepared to stimulate discussion. Consider when you’ll ask specific questions to specific participants, or when you’ll take a more open-ended approach. Because it is a discussion, you won’t be in full control like you are in a typical presentation; your preparation, however, should evident to all participants. Strong preparation is one way that you will earn the trust and respect of the group.

6. Communicate before the session with participants. Share the objectives, schedule, and rules of engagement with your participants as early as possible. This establishes the framework for the discussion, and helps participants prepare. For formal discussions (e.g. a week-long corporate discussion), I recommend sending information out at least a week in advance. For informal discussions (e.g. a book club meeting), it is sufficient to kick off the session by sharing this information.

7. Arrange the logistics. Every discussion group has different needs. What does your group need to be productive? • Where will your group meet? Will it comfortably accommodate the size of your group? • What extra furniture do you need that isn’t already present? • Do you need flip charts, portable white boards, paper, pens, or markers? • Do you need a projector, laptop, network connection, extension cords? • Are you supplying food and beverages? For how many people? Does the timing fit your schedule?

8. Set up the room to promote discussion. For small groups, a circular (or square) arrangement of tables and chairs is ideal. This allows participants to see you and each other. For large groups, you may need to arrange microphones throughout the room for participants to access. For all sizes: • Aim for clear sight lines (between each other, as well as to flip charts, etc.) • Provide ample space for participants, including laptop or a writing space. • Comfort is important Make it happen. Don’t hesitate to move furniture around or even remove unnecessary furniture (to create more space). I do this almost every time I lead a session.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 CLASS ROOM DISCUSSION
Once joked in class that I was a one trick pony when teaching so I hope they like discussions because that’s all we were going to be doing I believe in the power of discussions particularly when teaching graduate students. Since the days of Socrates, the value of teaching using probing questions has served to help students learn and develop critical thinking skills. In today’s post. I will detail the five advantages of teaching with discussions. There are many different types of discussions. From whole class discussions to small group ones, discussions present many advantages when teaching. Specifically, I believe there are five advantages that make discussions a valued approach for teaching college students.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 different Perspectives

1. Explore different perspectives. Discussions enable students to consider various viewpoints on a topic. As classmates directly share their opinions, thoughts, and questions about course content, students learn from others. Students bring a host of different characteristics to class that inform how they understand and make sense of a topic The use of discussions brings these experiences to the forefront more effectively than nearly any other teaching approach.

2. Students assume a sense of ownership of class and learning. One of the best advantages that I’ve found with discussions is that students become responsible for the class and their own learning. At times, I have had classes struggle with the idea of discussions. I once taught an undergraduate class that I could not get to talk about the topic for the day. For four or five weeks, I was constantly pulling teeth to get them to talk. I finally said that I was going to sit there until someone said something (and I reminded them there were no wrong answers). I asked a question and sat down. For about 30 seconds, we all sat in silence. Then one student and then another spoke up. We never had a problem again as they assumed partial ownership of the class.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 explore topic deeper

3. Explore topics deeper. The use of discussions allows students to explore a topic more deeply than simply reading about it or listening to a lecture about the topic. Through the discussion, we can explore small aspects and details that might get ignored with other teaching approaches. Moreover, students are often the ones through their own questions and comments drive the discussion deeper on a topic. In this way, students engage at a level that helps ensure they fully comprehend the topic under discussion.

4. Discussions force active participation. Numerous studies of college students show that students learn better when actively engaged. I believe discussions are one of the most powerful, yet easiest ways to get students actively involved. Whether through group discussions or as an entire class, students are all capable of actively participating in a discussion.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 comfort

5. Comfort with ambiguity and complexity. Perhaps the biggest challenge I’ve seen with both undergraduate and graduate students over the years is an inability to manage ambiguity and complexity. There are probably many reasons for this from the high stakes testing environment in K-12 education to the recent fetish with rubrics. However, I believe this can be one of the greatest skills we can teach our students. We have programmed students to seek the right answer rather than to ask the right questions. We have also pushed for the right answer without a sufficient understanding of why the answer is correct. My students often laugh because discussions in my class sound like a conversation with a 2 year old. Why? Why? Why? Why? By continually asking students why, I can probe them to look for additional complexity and ambiguity in the topic. If there is one thing I hope that students take away from my classes, this is it.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 DISADVANTAGES OF CLASSROOM DISCUSSION

Classroom discussions create an opportunity for teachers to lead a class through a subject and build upon students’ knowledge. Unfortunately, this is sometimes at the expense of less active students and creates a time-consuming process that restricts a teacher’s ability to plan lessons.

The risk of going off track with the discussion is another problem, and these issues grow as the class size grows. While a classroom discussion is ideal in the right environment, it may not be so perfect for some classes.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 Class size

CLASS SIZE:-
Class discussions become less effective with a class size greater than 20 students. As the class size grows beyond this point, individual voices become unheard and the opportunity for the class to get off topic increases. Skilled teachers begin to notice this problem with fewer than 20 students, but with effective class management you can hold your class together.
FEW DOMINATE:-
The class discussion environment allows a few individual students to dominate the class conversation. This tendency benefits your strongest students, the individuals already most familiar with the subject. Other students are able to relax into the background and participate less often in the class discussion. This freedom leads to a relaxation of their student responsibilities. They are free to assume that they can avoid studying, reading assignments or individual contemplation of the subject. This problem escalates as the class size increases.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017 Time Consuming

TIME CONSUMING:-
The nature of class discussion makes the process very time consuming. The process of exploring a subject, while keeping students on task in the discussion, requires far more time than classic lecture style instruction. Short class periods may not be sufficient to accommodate a complicated subject matter or to fully explore a daily objective. This forces you to either abridge your lesson plan, leave a subject unfinished or resume the discussion during another class period in which you had intended to discuss another matter. Additionally, it is difficult to judge the necessary length for specific issues, making designing lesson plans very challenging.

FIND HERE ALSO:- AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017

OFF TRACK:-
Classroom discussions naturally open avenues for discussion between instructors and students but also between students and other students. While these discussions are the focus of the class, they can turn toward areas you do not intend and even move entirely away from the point of the discussion. While it is possible to redirect an errant conversation back on track, valuable class time is lost and you risk losing your student’s focus on the subject matter.

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