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B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 GENERAL METHOD OF TEACHING
Q.1 A) DEFINE TEACHING AND ELABORATE OLD NEW ASPECTS OF TEACHING.
The act or profession of a person who teaches. The measure of efficiency in teaching besides the material presented, narrows down to the process used in the teaching system. If we consider the available methods for teaching today, the debate will definitely occur between the old schooling systems versus the new schooling system.
Being told what to do to get an A isn’t just an experience that my friends and I have had in our years in elementary school but it’s also the main characteristic of the so-called old schooling system. This teaching method emphasizes the theoretical part of learning and it is mostly considered as ‘copy-paste’ learning. This terminology means that the material explained in class is the teacher’s notes or a book, from the students it is expected to know that information word by word if they want to have a good grade.
Since the lessons are teacher oriented mostly, the students are the passive party in the classroom and that leads to less interaction between students in class and no critical thinking for issues being presented. Consequently this lack of discussion in class has a negative effect only on the student because it reduces the chances for feedback or context clarification while lecturing. Last but not least, teaching theory without putting it on life situations may cause students to lose interest in their studies since the system considers him/her just as a number in the class and not a valuable person who can contribute with valuable ideas for the community.
Newer ways of imparting education through smart boards and projectors can only be helpful if the preaching system is done away with. A certain amount of practical knowledge is imperative. Learning through movement and the senses is becoming easier to do as bulky, stationary technology has become more mobile. Also, we are seeing the beginnings of a trend in which technology is becoming practically invisible and more integrated into our everyday environments. Digital technology such as tablets can help teachers and students rediscover traditional ways of learning by using touch, movement, sound, and visually.
3D printers serve as a revolutionizing tool to aid many areas of education and provide teachers with new ways of getting their message across. Young students get bored with lots of text, making information visible helps but printing it in 3 dimensions truly captures the student’s interest, By using a 30 printer, any class will instantly be transformed in an interactive learning experience. Print parts of a skeleton to use for a biology class or use it for prototyping in technique classes.
Difficult concepts will not only be visible but also tangible. Anything normally drawn out on the black board can now be explained through models that students can touch and investigate from any angle. Hands-on learning through 3D models, especially for art and technique classes, it is great to use the prototyping capabilities to make students’ creative ideas and designs come to live.
B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING
b) Highlight the principles of effective teaching.
Principle 1: Care about helping your kids to do the best that they can
Effective teachers are passionate about helping their students to learn. They form warm and caring relationships with their students. However, they also set high expectations, and they demand that their students meet them. This leads to a situation where the teacher and the students are working together towards a common goal — helping every child to learn as much as they can.
Principle 2: Understand but don’t excuse your students Effective teachers seek to understand their students, but so do most teachers. The difference is that effective teachers still expect each of their students to behave and to achieve well. Effective teachers use their understanding to adjust their approach to teaching, but they did not use it to excuse misbehavior, poor effort or a lack of real academic progress.
Principle 3: Be clear about what you want your students to learn: Effective teachers are clear about what they want their students to learn and they share this with their students. Everyone understands what success entails. Effective teachers also know where students are currently at in this area. They then work towards developing the understanding and skills their students need to demonstrate that they have mastered the material.
Principle 4: Disseminate surface knowledge and promote deep learning: Effective teachers want their students to be able to think critically and to develop a deep understanding of the material being taught in class. However, they recognize developing this deep understanding requires sharing a foundational set of knowledge and skills. Armed with this foundation, teachers can help students to develop a deep understanding of the topic at hand.
Principle 5: Gradually release responsibility for learning: Effective teachers do not ask their students to perform tasks that they have not shown their students how to do. Rather, they start by modelling what students need to do. They then ask their students to have a go themselves, while being available to help as needed. Only when students are ready, do they ask their students to perform the tasks on their own. Finally, they offer ongoing cumulative practice, spaced out over time, to help students retain what they have learned
Principle 6: Give your student’s feedback: Effective teachers give students dollops of feedback. This feedback tells students how they are going and gives them information about how they could improve. Without feedback, students are likely to continue holding misconceptions and making errors. Feedback allows students to adjust their understanding and efforts before it is too late.
Principle 7: Involve students in learning from each other: Effective teachers supplement teacher-led, individual learning, with activities that involve students in learning from each other. When done well, strategies such as cooperative learning, competition and peer tutoring can be quite powerful. Yet, these activities must be carefully structured and used in conjunction with more traditional teaching.
Principle 8: Manage your students’ behavior: Effective teachers know that students’ behavior can help or hinder how much students learn in the classroom. They implement strategies that nurture positive behavior and minimize misbehavior. They are consciously aware of what is going in the classroom, and they nip problems in the bud before quickly returning the focus to the lesson at hand. Finally, they follow up on more serious misbehavior and help students to change any entrenched bad habits.
Principle 9: Evaluate the impact you are having on your students: Effective teachers regularly assess student progress, and they then use this insight to evaluate the impact they are having on their students. If what they are doing is working, they continue to use or even make more use of a particular approach. If what they are doing is not having the desired impact (even for just one student), they reflect on and refine what they are doing until they are getting the results they want.
Principle 10: Continue learning ways that you can be of even more help to more students: Effective teachers love learning and are always seeking to improve their own practices. They seek out evidence-based insights, and they are happy to challenge their existing beliefs about teaching. However, they are also critical of mindless innovation, innovation for the sake of it, and innovation that adopts practices that are not supported by research. You can use these principles of effective teaching to reflect on your own practice, to discuss effective teaching with colleagues or evaluate particular programs/approaches you are considering.
B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Q.2 A) WHY A TEACHER’S PERSONALITY TRAITS ARE IMPORTANT TO CREATE AND MAINTAIN A CLASS ROOM/LEARNING ENVIRONMENT?
Teacher Personality Traits and Classroom Management Personality: Personality refers to the uniqueness of a person in terms of his attributes, qualities, capabilities, weaknesses, emotionality, physical qualities etc. Mangal, (2014) puts it personality is all that a person is, it is the totality of one’s behavior towards oneself as well as others. It includes everything about the person, his physical, emotional, social. Mental and spiritual make-up. All port cited in Mangal (2014) defines personality as dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. Eysenck also quote in Mangal (2014) sees personality as the more or less stable and enduring organization of a person’s character, temperament, intellect, and physique, which determines his unique adjustment to the environment. The effectiveness of managing a classroom greatly depends on the personality of the teacher which determines the teacher’s level of organization, charisma and unique adjustment to classroom processes. Teachers may have the same professional qualities but they differ in their personality characteristics which makes their approach to classroom management also different. Thus the following can be considered as personality characteristics of the teacher that influence his managerial effectiveness in the classroom.
• Physical appearance (dressing) 4 Intelligence 4 Discipline
• Communication effectiveness/presentation
• Teacher/pupil/student relationship
i. Physical appearance of the teacher: It is often said you are addressed the way you dress. Dressing well is an importance personality trait which attracts respect and value for a teacher. If a teacher appears good neatly dressed and well kept. The students will have a positive view of the teacher and full of expectations. Their positive view of the teacher keeps the students naturally focused and expectant with that level of respect the class comes to order.
ii. Intelligence level of the teacher: Students naturally have great respect for intelligent teachers. An intelligent teacher is one who displays a strong grip of the subject matter, one who shows great mastery of content and has intelligent answers to student’s questions. He gives several concrete examples and clear illustrations in class, his presentation does not raise unnecessary controversies and arguments. So his class is always attentive and orderly.
iii. Discipline: Discipline is simply the quality of self-control in an individual. Social learning theories posit that children earn by observation and imitation children imitate the behavior of the teacher they observe. Thus the teacher has to be exemplary. Teacher can maintain discipline in class through the following ways (Egwu, 2013)
a. Treat students: With respect no matter the age of your students, treat them with respect. As you do that your students will treat you with respect as well.
b. Get to know the students: Show interest in your students by getting to know them. Make sure you know their names and bring them close to yourself.
c. Use positive rewards: Teacher should reinforce good behavior by giving rewards, the reward can be in form of praise, clapping, gifts etc.
d. Be fair and consistent: Apply discipline evenly across board, avoid any form of favoritism.
e. Don’t humiliate or demean student: Is you used to address a student’s misbehavior, don’t do so in a way that humiliates the student or openly disgracing the student in the class. Address the offence and still protect his dignity. When students are embarrassed before their peers they tend to rather develop negative behavior
f. Don’t get into arguments with students: Remain neutral with students. If a student is trying to make you argue with him, don’t rise to the bait. Instead maintain a firm yet clam stance. If the student continues to try arguing with you, say “we will discuss this after class”. This closes down the conflict momentarily. g. Make rules together and indicate consequences: Let the students be involved in making rules that govern the class. This will make students to keep the rules at will they will also tend to keep one another in check.
B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
(iv) Effective communication: Communication is the process of passing on information from a person to another through verbal and non-verbal approaches. The major personality qualities involved in this process are voice quality, gesticulations, maintaining focus, fluency and eloquence, confidence and comportment, simplicity, speed and sequence of speech. The voice of the teacher controls students’ attention. Teachers with good voice quality (loud, clear and audible) are more likely to have less attention problems than teachers with poor or low voice quality. Apart from the voice, self confidence, compartment, eloquence, simplicity in the choice of words maintaining ideological focus without derailing during presentations in the classroom are personality qualities which promote communication effectiveness, attract attention and maintain order in the classroom.
v. Teacher Temperament: For decades, scholars have debated about the diversity normally referred to as “super traits’ or “Temperament”. Three of these temperament dimensions are genetically based. (Grey, 1991).
B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 ROLE OF PRIMARY TEACHER
b) Enlist the role of a primary teacher.
What does a Primary School Teacher do?
Primary School Teachers educate children between the ages of 5 and 12 under a prescribed curriculum to develop students’ literacy and numeracy skills and foster social, physical and emotional growth. Subject areas within their curriculum include mathematics, English, science, technology, humanities and social science, arts, health and physical education.
As a Primary School Teacher, you’ll use a variety of effective techniques and technologies to engage students with the learning process according to their age, level of ability and individual needs. You will also encourage the intellectual and emotional growth of children including reasoning and problem solving skills, creativity and self-expression.
Primary School Teachers work collaboratively with leadership, specialist and support staff including the school Principal, Special Education Teachers, Guidance Officers, Teacher Librarians and Teacher Aides. If required, Primary School Teachers may also interact with other professionals such as Social Welfare Officers or Disability Officers to assist students who have special needs.
B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 Daily Tasks
Daily tasks for a Primary School Teacher
Primary School Teachers perform a range of tasks on a daily basis, which may include:
• Preparing daily and long-term lesson plans according to curriculum guidelines.
• Teaching a full range of subject areas.
• Developing children’s interests, abilities and coordination using a variety of creative activities including art, sport and music.
• Maintaining productive working habits and discipline in the classroom.
• Supervising students throughout the day, both in the classroom and outside during breaks.
• Attending staff meetings and training and development sessions.
• Assessing and evaluating students’ educational progress and abilities.
• Setting and conducting testing.
• Discussing students’ progress with parents and guardians, administrators and other professionals as necessary.
• Organizing, attending and supervising school activities such as excursions, school concerts, camps and sporting events. Working hours of a Primary School Teacher
In addition to working regular school hours, Primary School Teachers may also be required to work extended hours in order to plan lessons, attend staff meetings or events, and mark students’ school work. A Primary School Teacher may carry out these tasks in the morning before the school day commences, after teaching hours in the afternoon or evening, on weekends, or a combination of these hours. Primary School Teachers are not required to work during school holiday periods, in additional to their regular annual leave.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER AND AN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATOR?
PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS are eligible to teach children between the ages of 5 and 12, or in Year 1 to Years 6 or 7, depending on the state’s school structure. Along with developing students’ literacy and numeracy skills, Primary School Teachers assist with building problem solving and social skills.
B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 Early Childhood Educators
EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATORS (or Early Childhood Teachers) are qualified to develop and implement educational programs for children between the ages of 4 and 8 (or children in Kindergarten or Prep through to Year 3). Early Childhood Educators help young students to develop social skills, creativity and coordination, and an interest in learning. Both Primary School Teachers and Early Childhood Educators are required to hold a tertiary teaching qualification.
B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 GOALS
Q.3 WHY IS OUTLINING OF GOALS/ OBJECTIVES NECESSARY BEFORE PLANNING A LESSON?
Answer: A learning objective states specifically what a student should be able to do. Here are some examples of good learning objectives: Students will be able to:
• Identify different levels of data in new scenarios.
• Explain in context a confidence interval.
• Determine which probability distribution out of binomial, Poisson or normal is most appropriate to model in an unfamiliar situation.
• Compare two time series models of the same data and evaluate which is more appropriate in a given context.
B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES NEED TO BE SPECIFIC AND MEASURABLE.
Here are some things that people might think are learning objectives, but are not:
• Students will understand the central limit theorem. (The term “understand” is not measurable)
• Students will learn about probability trees (“learn” is not measurable, and does not specify the level. Do students need to be able to interpret or create probability trees?)
THERE ARE VAST NUMBERS OF RESOURCES ON LEARNING OBJECTIVES ONLINE.
Here is one I liked, with Bloom’s taxonomy of levels of learning. These are higher and lower levels of learning objectives, ranging from being able to state principles, through to synthesis and evaluation.
B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
NOT JUST LEARNING OBJECTIVES
A course is more than the set of its learning objectives. The learning objectives specify the skills, but there are also attitudes and knowledge to be considered. The starting point for course design is the attitudes. What do we want the students to feel about the topics? What changes do we wish them to contemplate in their thinking? Then the skills and knowledge are specified, often starting at a quite general level, then working down to specifics.
B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 Students
For example, we might wish to teach about confidence intervals. We need to determine whether students need to be able to calculate them, interpret them, estimate or derive them. We need to decide which confidence intervals we are interested in — for means alone, or proportions and slopes as well? Sometimes I find there are concepts I wish to include in the learning objectives, but they don’t really work as objectives. These I put as “important concepts and principles”. I have put an example of learning objectives and concepts and principles at the end of this post.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES TELL STUDENTS WHAT IS IMPORTANT:-
Without learning objectives it is difficult for students to know what they are supposed to be learning. In a lecture, a teacher can talk extensively about a case, but unless she states explicitly, it can be difficult for the students to know where to direct their attention. Do they need to know the details of that specific case or what principles are they supposed to glean from the example? Or was it just a “war-story” to entertain the troops? Students can waste a great deal of time studying things that are not necessary, to the determent of their learning as a whole. The uncertainty also causes unnecessary anxiety.
B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ENABLE GOOD ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT
Each year as we wrote our assessments we would go through the learning objectives and make sure they were assessed. This way the assessment was fair and applied to the course. If we found it difficult to write a question to assess a learning object ye we would think again about the learning objective, and what It is we really want the students to be able to do. It made it easier to write fair, comprehensive assessments.
B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 Drives Learning
Learning objectives encourage reflection and good course design and development as instructors write and review the learning objectives in a course, they can identify the level of learning that is specified in each. At an entry-level course, it is acceptable to have a number of lower level learning objectives. However, there needs to be some serious thinking done if a post-graduate course is not mainly made up of higher level learning objectives. I have seen tests in stage 2 and 3 papers that tested mainly recall and common-sense. It was evident that the instructor had not thought clearly about the level of learning that: was expected.
Sometimes we find we are assessing things we have not specifically taught the students. The use of learning objectives, linked with assessment design, helps us to identify the background knowledge that we assume students have. One colleague was frustrated that the students did not seem able to apply the statistical results to a managerial context. However, nowhere had she specified that students would be required to do so, and nowhere had she actually taught students how to do this. She also assumed a level of understanding of business, That was probably not appropriate in undergraduate students
B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017
LIKE IT OR NOT, ASSESSMENT DRIVES LEARNING
I spoke recently to a math’s advisor who informed me that teachers should be teaching to the curriculum not to the assessments. I felt he was idealistic, and told him so. My experience is that university students will lean what is assessed, and nothing else. I don’t know at what age this begins, but I suspect National Testing, the bane of good education, has lowered the age considerably. How wonderful it would be if our students learned for the sheer joy of learning! Where there are assessments looming, I fear this is unlikely.
When we write exams we are also writing learning materials for future students. One of the most common ways to prepare for an assessment is to do exercises from previous assessments. So when we feel that students were not really coming to grips with a concept, we include questions in the assessment that can then be used by future students for review.
B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 UNNECESSARY STRESS
INFORMATION PROMOTES EQUITY AND REDUCES UNNECESSARY STRESS
The use of learning objectives can help reduce the “gaming” aspects that can proliferate in the absence of clear information. This is apparent at present in the world of Year 13 Statistics in New Zealand. The information regarding the external standards for 2013 is still sketchy (1 July 2013). The exams are written by external examiners and will take place in November of this year. However there is still only vague and sometimes incorrect information as to exactly what may or may not be included in the exams. Because of this, teachers are trying to detect, from what is or isn’t in the formula sheet and the (not totally correct) exemplars what might be in the finals, and what to include in the school practice exams. I suspect that some teachers or areas have more information than others. The way to make this fairer is to specify what is included in the material that may be included, as learning objectives. Let us hope that some clarity comes soon, for the sake of the teachers and the students.
Find Also:- AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017
So what were the learning objectives for this post? As a result of reading this post, readers will
• Reflect on their methods of course development and assessment with respect to using learning objectives.
• find further resources on the internet regarding learning objectives.
• Make comments on the good and bad aspects of this post! (oops — I didn’t teach that one)