B.Ed solved Assignment 2 code 651
Basic rules for changing Active voice into Passive voice
It is necessary in describe definition of active and passive voice before to explain the basic rules of active and passive voice.
Active Voice: A verb is said to be in the active voice when its form shows that the persons or thing which is subject, dons something, or is the doer of an action: as,
i. Arshad writes a letter.
ii. We drink code water.
Passive Voice: A Verb is said to be in the passive voice when its form shows that something is being done to the person or thing which is its subject: as,
i. A letter is written by Arshad.
ii. Cold water is drunk by us.
The form of the verb is called “voice”, because it shows whether the subject dose something or is being done to it.
Basic rules or the change from active voice to passive voice
1. The object of the verb in the active voice become the subject o the verb in the passive voice.
2. The subject in the passive has generally the preposition “by” placed before in the passive voice.
3. In the passive vice one of the various form of the verb of be (is, (am, are, was, were, being, been) is used with the past participle o the verb: as Active passive I. His father likes him………………….. He is liked by his father. II. I am writing a letter, …………………. A letter is being written by me.
4. When the verb is in the second and express a command or request, etc, the verb “let” is used in the passive voice; as Serve and obey your elders ……………… (Active voice) Let your elders be served and obeyed.( Passive voice)
5. In the interrogative sentences “who” is changed into “by whom “. In a similar way preposition is added to question words to make the sense passive. The verb is also readjusted accordingly: as, i) who wrote this letter? (Active Voice) ii) by whom this letter was written? (Passive Voice) i) Why did you beat him? (Active Voice) ii) Why was he beaten by you? (Passive Voice)
6. It will be noticed from rule (I) that the object of a verb in the active voice becomes subject in the passive voice.
7. Sometimes a sentence has two object, (a) “ Direct object’ and (b) “ an indirect object “ In such cases on of these may be made the subject in the passive voice, while the other object is put at its original place: as I forgave him and his fault (Direct object). Active Voice He and his fault were forgiven by me. ( Indirect object) Or HE was forgiven his fault by me. (Passive Voice)
8. Some intransitive verb too may have a passive forum in rare cases. They are made transitive by adding a preposition after them, or when they have a cognate object’ as, I. He laughed at the peer man. (Active Voice) The poor man was laughed at by him (Passive Voice) ii. I have fought a good fight. (Active Voice) A good fight has fought by me. (Passive Voice)
9. A considerable change takes place in the tense of a verb while changing a sentence from active voice to passive voice, as clear from following kinds of tense with examples.
10. Present indefinite Tense:- In active voice we use first form of verb and add ‘s’ or ‘es’ with 3rd person singular. In passive voice we use 3rd form of verb along with “is” when the object is singular and ‘are’ when the object is plural. For example’ i. We paly cricket…………. Cricket is played by as. Ii. He read many books………………. Many books are read by him. Present Continuous Tense:- In active voice we use present principle ( first form o verb with “ing” as liking, sleeping) with ‘is’ and ‘are’ In passive voice we use ‘is being with the 3rd form when the object is singular and ‘are being’ when the object is plural’ e.g. i. She is writing letter……………… A letter is being writing by her. Ii. You are reading interesting books……………….. Interesting books are being read by you. Present perfect Tense:- In the active voice we use third form of verb with the auxiliary verb “have” for first person, 2nd person and 3rd person plural and ‘has’ with the 3rd form of verb for 3rd person singular. In passive voice we are “has been with the 3rs person form of verb, where the object are singular and have been with the 3rd form of verb when the object is plural. e.g. She has left this school. (Active Voice) The school has been left by her. (Passive Voice) We have won the match. (Active Voice) The match has been won by us. (Passive Voice) Present Perfect Continuous Tense:- The passive voice in this sentences is the same as in present perfect these. For example she has been reading these book since morning. These books have been read by her since morning. Past Indefinite Tense:- In active voice we use 2nd form of verb. In passive voice we use 3rd form of verb with the auxiliary verb ‘was’ when the object is singular and ‘were’ when the object is plural. For example He bought a book………………. A book was bought by him. Past Continuous Tans:- In the active voice, we use present participle (first form of verb with ing) with ‘was’ or ‘were’ while in the passive voice we use 3rd form of verb with ‘was being’ when the object is singular and ‘were being’ when the object is plural. For example, She was writing a latter……………………….. A letter was being written by her. Were they singing songs………………….. Were the songs being sung by them? Past Perfect Tense:- In the active voice, we use 3rd form of verb with ’hard’. While in passive voice we use had been with the 3rd verb. e.g. She had left this house previous years (Active Voice) this house had been let by here last (passive Voice) we had finished our work. (Active voice) Our work had been finished by us (passive Voice) Past perfect Continuous Tans:- passive voice of this tense in the same as that of past perfect tense. For example, He had been reading this book (Active voice) This book had been read by him (passive voice) Future Indefinite Tense:- In the active voice we use first form of verb with ‘will’ or ‘shall’ .In the passive voice we use ‘will be’ or ‘shall be’ with the 3rd form of verb: as, He will read a book……………… A book will be read by him. I shall not watch T.V…………………. T.V will not be watched by me. Future Continuous Tense:- The passive voice in this case is the same as Future Indefinite Tense. Future perfect Tense In active voice we use ‘will have’ or ‘shell have’ with the 3rd form of verb in the passive voice. We use ‘shell have been with the 3rd for verb.(For example) He will have done his work. (Active Voice) His work will have been done by him (passive Voice) Future perfect Continuous Tense:- The passive voice in this tense in the same as future tense. (For example) He will have been reading this book (Active voice) This book will have boon read by him (Passive voice) Imperative Sentences:- Imperative sentences are those sentence which simple order and being with a verb. In the passive voice of imperative sentence we use “Let-be” with the 3rd form of verb, for example: Open the door…………. Let the door be open. Give me a glass of water……………………. Let a glass of water be given to me. Use of can, could, may, might and must. Active Voice Passive Voice In can read your hand writing. Your hand writing can be read by me you may take this book. This book may be taken by you. I might need your help. Your help might be needed by me. There are some sentences which are correct only when used in passive voice: as, His house is situated in this line. Doge are not allowed in this lane. The Programmer was telecasted last night. Passive Describing State:-
Not all passive verbs describe action that have been don. Some describes states or conditions such passive are called ‘stative’. (For example) The door is closed the garden is situated at the back of the house. The acid is diluted I am related to him. We are concerned with his reply.
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Aiou B.Ed solved assignment 2 code 651
In respect of form, a letter may be divided into the following part:
1. Heading/Address and date:-
One should write one’s full address on the right hand side off the page. The date should never be written in contraction, as 05-05-2008, it should be either of following form:
May, 5, 2008. 5th of May 2008, 5th may, 2008
This is form of address or the way in which we address a person. It depends on the relationship/relations existing between the writer and the address
3. Body of the letter:-
This part o the letter consists of details. It is always better to divide this portion into two or three paragraphs.
Subscription in the way in way in which we end our letter. The closing words, again, depend on the relationship between the writer and the addressee. Here are given a few forms of salutation and subscription used personal letter.
The address written on the face of the envelopes is also considered as a part of the letter. Hence the first line should come just below it and the third line should contain the number of the house, street or road etc. The name of the city or Town (Dist. in case of the village mail) should come in the last line, and should always be written in block letter.
S.# Relation Salutation Subscription
1 Elders My dear (given here the relationship, as father, mother, cousin etc). The first letter of relationship is always in a capital letter. Your loving (relationship. As son, brother, etc).
Your affectionately (Signature or pt name)
2 Younger My Dear (give name, as Islam, Sadiq etc). Your affectionately (Signature)
3 Friends and Equals My dear (Name), Dear (Name). Your sincerely (Signature)
4 A acquaintance Dear Mr. or Miss (Name) Your’s Truly or very truly your’s (Signature)
5 Stranger or persons very Slightly known Sir Your obediently or yours obedient pupil (Full Signature)
6 Teacher benefactors and patrons Sir, Your obediently or yours obedient pupil (Full Signature)
THE FORMAT OF LETTER
Classification of Letter
Letter are usually divided / classified into following groups.
1. Personal Letter:-
These include letter addressed to relatives, friends and acquaintances, ranging between domestic affairs to invitation. The style of personal letter is always more familiar than that of type of compositions. It is a friendly and very often, a private talk, with like formality. Therefore, the style of personal letter should he natural and familiar, for example.
A letter to a father his son, informing him about his to some college or hostel.
A letter to younger brother explaining him the duties a good student.
2. Business Letter:-
These include all business and commercial correspondence, including orders for articles and their reply. A business letter enables its writer to obtain some satisfaction or benefit of a monetary nature. Formerly, business letters were full of conversations and awkward phrases. Now a days a change of outlook is being seen and business man of todays like to be neither too polite nor too formal. Thus business correspondences have developed its own terminology. A business letter should have the following fine qualifies, usually called the five ‘C’s’. It should be
1.Clear 2.Concise 3.Compact (definite) 4. Complete 5. Courteous.
These include al official correspondence, letters of applications letter editor of newspapers ete. Official letters are kind of business letters and as such follows the same rules. Like business letters. Official letters should he clear, impersonal, precise and to the point. They should neither boastful nor timid in their tone. All applications, reports and representation come under this category. The following points should, however point should, however, be remembered.
i). Official letter should being with complete address of the person to whom the letter is being written. Confidential letters, of course are not to be sent by mane and not by designation.
ii). Give a short introductions, clearly mentioning (especially in case of applications) whether we are applying of our own accord or in response to an advertisement. Also give the name and date of the papers in which the notice appeared.
iii). When writing an applications for appointment, particular care should be taken to the form and construction of sentences, grammar and spellings. The handwriting too should be clear, legible and free from bolts.
iv). All official letters should be written in the 1st person.
Note:- For important forms of address used in office letter.
These include letters of invitations, their replies and acknowledgements etc. These also include letter to the Editor. The following points should be remembered in connections with invitations and their replies.
a) All formal invitations are written in the 3rd person.
b) No salutation or subscription in needed.
c) The set form of invitations should strictly be observed.
d) All notes of invitations should show the time, date and place of the meeting or entertainment.
e) In invitations to sea, dinner or lunch there should be written R.S.V.P reply if you please, at the bottom of the notice.
f) Formal invitation need not to be signed.
Letters to Editor / Newspaper
Parts of letter to Editor are: as, inside address, salutations, body, date and address, subscription and signature.
In the letter to the editors the heading or the address of the sender is written at the left hand bottom of the letter. The date is written in the first line whereas the address in given in the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th lines. If we want to remain unidentified, give specific instruction under the address ‘not’ to be published. In that case a pseudonym is written in place of the written mane and in that place marked “signature”. Such as PRO BONO PUMLICO: DISGUESTED, ONE WHO KNOWS etc.
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Differentiate between a Method, technique and approach.
A method is a general process of creating interaction between the subject matter offered by the school and the students. It has an established sequence of doing something. We can say that:
A method is a planned offer.
It has an established sequence
It also an established relationship among different parts.
It is way of inducing interaction between the subject matter linked and the student.
A method is directly linked with objectives. The spirit of method is the feeling of “how” works. A method emphasize on proper and systematic planning of content. A method that is a vast activity which induces interaction between the subject matter and students. A method as a whole include many techniques and is planned before hand.
In contrast to method, a technique is very limited, which although induces re-action but does not go further in a continuum. Numerous techniques can be used in a teaching method.
According to dictionary of Education, techniques are a way of doing things which can be repeated again and again. A technique can be process of doing things. It can be a way of manipulating thing or it can be a procedure of completing some work. A teacher usually uses the following kinds of teaching techniques during his lesson.
i. Achievement tests
ii. Using exercise books
iii. Using bulletin board
iv. Using questions
v. Home work
vi. Use of A.V. aids
vii. Use of library
viii. Using individual and group competitions So we can that technique is directly linked with method. The spirit of technique is “With what”. A technique emphasizes physiological and logical aspects. It is limited activities which although induces reaction but does not go further to continue. It is a part and is seldom planned.
A language is a means of communication. A language is meat which human being communicate with each other. Through this process individuals inform each other desires, their plans and feelings about objects and events. To make communication effective the users of language require approach. Natural approach is called. Acquisition Theory. The central idea of the approach is not new. But the present formulation of this approach is such that it is the latest approach in the field of foreign language teaching.
It may be stated as acquiring a foreign language in a purely environment. The natural environment means where no conscious effort for “learning” on language is made.
Kinds of approach
There are three kinds of approach, as,
1. Formalist approach.
2. Activist approach.
3. Appropriate approach.
In the formalist approach the emphasis is on forms. The teachers the rules pf language and their applications in very detail and expects that by studying the rules, the students will master the language. This approach relics on the deductive form of teaching moving from the statements of the rules to their application in the example.
No doubt that many practicing teachers of the modern languages follow the formalist approach because it is easy to follow for the teacher, but there have always been protest in favor of some lining language. The activist approach is a functional approach to the structure of the language. The rare and the exceptional things are left for the later stages. It familiarizes the students first with forms of the language used for communication in speech.
The effectiveness of teaching method depends upon selection of method. Either method is relative to situation or not.
The strategy which a teacher uses for his teaching according to content material is called appropriate approach. In this approach, appropriate materials are used to create proper situation. Appropriate approach varies from content to content and teacher to teacher. This approach is different with different teachers.