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AIOU Solved Assignments Codes All Are Available OF Spring

Aiou Solved Assignments Code All 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 Spring 2018

aiou solved assignments code aiou solved assignment code spring 2018 aiou solved assignment 2 codes aiou solved assignment 1 codes

Aiou Solved Assignments Code Spring SemesterS

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Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) solved assignment  1& 2 Spring 2018 Book codes, Spring 2018 is available now according to AIOU pattern, please visit following links for more assignmnets available on the website.

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Contact for assignment delivery on That Number after senting money Sent us your Transaction ID on Whatsapp

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اقوام متحدہ کے اسسٹنٹمنٹ کوڈز تمام موسم بہار 2018 کے دستیاب ہیں

AIOU حلال کاری کوڈ تمام 1 & 2 اور 3 اور 4 موسم بہار 2018

Auou تفویض کوڈ بہار 2018 aiou تفویض 2 کوڈ aiou تفویض 1 کوڈ کو حل

علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی (AIOU) نے تفویض 1 اور 2 بہار 2018 کتاب کوڈز، موسم بہار 2018 کو اب حل کیا ہے، اب ویب سائٹ پر دستیاب مزید assignmnets کے لئے مندرجہ بالا لنکس ملاحظہ کریں.

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Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code Aiou Solved Assignments Code

 

Class Code 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
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Matric 201 Available Available Available Available
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Intermediate 376 Available Available Available Available
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BA / B.Com 402 Available Available English Urdu
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M.Sc Economics 805 Available Available
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MA / M.Ed 826 Available Available English
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MSc. Gender and Women Studies 874 Available Available
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B.Ed / ADE 1655 Available Available
PGD (CS) 3575 Available Available
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PGD (CS) 3578 Available Available
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MA Special Education 3611 Available Available
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MA Special Education 3613 Available Available
MA Special Education 3614 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4601 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4602 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4631 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4632 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4639 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4640 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 4645 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 4646 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 4647 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 4648 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4659 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4660 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4661 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4662 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4667 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4668 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4669 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4670 Available Available
Msc. Economics 4671 Available Available
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MSc. Sociology 4681 Available Available
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ADE / B.Ed 5411 Available Available
MLIS 5500 Available Available
MLIS 5501 Available Available
MLIS 5502 Available Available
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Col MBA/MPA 5563 Available On demand
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MBA Executive/MPA 5574 Available On demand
MBA Executive/MPA 5583 Available On demand
MBA Executive/MPA 5584 Available On demand
MBA Executive/MPA 5588 Available On demand
MBA Executive/MPA 5599 Available On demand
MA URDU 5605 Available Available
MA URDU 5606 Available Available
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MA URDU 5615 Available Available
MA URDU 5616 Available Available
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MA URDU 5623 Available Available
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MSc. Mass Communication 5625 Available Available
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MSc. Mass Communication 5635 Available Available
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MSc. Mass Communication 5638 Available Available
MLIS 5645 Available Available
MLIS 5646 Available Available
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Diploma TEFL 5655 Available On demand
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Diploma TEFL 5657 Available On demand
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MA TEFL 5664 Available On demand
MA TEFL 5665 Available On demand
MA TEFL 5666 Available On demand
MA TEFL 5669 Available On demand
MA History 5671 Available Available
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MA History 5674 Available Available
MA History 5675 Available Available
MA History 5681 Available Available
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MA History 5684 Available Available
MA History 5685 Available Available
MA History 5686 Available Available
ADE / B.Ed 6401 Available Available
ADE / B.Ed 6402 Available Available
ADE / B.Ed 6403 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 6500 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 6501 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 6502 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 6503 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 6505 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 6506 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 6507 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 6508 Available Available English
MA / M.Ed 6552 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 6553 Available Available English Urdu
MA EPM 6557 Available Available
MA EPM 6558 Available Available
MA EPM 6561 Available Available
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MA EPM 6565 Available Available
MA EPM 6566 Available Available
MA EPM 6569 Available Available
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MBA / M.Com 8501 Available On demand
MBA / M.Com 8502 Available On demand
MBA / M.Com 8503 Available On demand
MBA / M.Com 8504 Available On demand
MBA / M.Com 8505 Available On demand
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MBA / M.Com 8511 Available On demand
MBA / M.Com 8513 Available On demand
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B.ED 8601 Available Available
B.ED 8602 Available Available
B.ED 8603 Available Available
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B.ED 8638 Available Available
MS 8701 Available Available
MS 8702 Available Available
MS 8703 Available Available
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Class Code 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
KEY BOOKS KEY BOOKS KEY BOOKS
Matric 201 Available Available Available Available
Matric 202 Available Available Available Available
Matric 203 Available Available Available Available
Matric 204 Available Available Available Available
Matric 207 Available Available
Matric 218 Available Available
Matric 220 Available Available
Matric 221 Available Available
Matric 247 Available Available
Matric 248 Available Available
Intermediate 301 Available Available
Intermediate 308 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 311 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 312 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 315 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 316 Available Available
Intermediate 317 Available Available
Intermediate 321 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 322 Available Available
Intermediate 330 Available Available
Intermediate 343 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 346 Available Available
Intermediate 347 Available Available
Intermediate 356 Available Available
Intermediate 357 Available Available
Intermediate 359 Available Available
Intermediate 363 Available Available
Intermediate 364 Available Available
Intermediate 376 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 386 Available Available
Intermediate 387 Available Available
Intermediate 394 Available Available
Intermediate 395 Available Available
BA / B.Com 402 Available Available English Urdu
BA / B.Com 404 Available Available Available Available
BA / B.Com 405 Available
BA / B.Com 406 Available Available Available Available
BA / B.Com 407 Available Available Available Available
BA / B.Com 411 Available Available Available Available
BA / B.Com 412 Available Available Available Available
BA / B.Com 413 Available Available
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BA / B.Com 436 Available Available Available Available
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BA / B.Com 444 Available Available
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BA / B.Com 466 Available Available Available Available
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BA / B.Com 472 Available Available Available Available
BA / B.Com 473 Available Available Available Available
BA / B.Com 481 Available Available
BSC 482 Available Available
BA / B.Com 484 Available Available
BA / B.Com 485 Available Available
BA / B.Com 487 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 537 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 545 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 622 Available Available
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MA / M.Ed 625 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 626 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 627 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 629 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 671 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 672 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 673 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 695 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 696 Available Available
M.Sc Economics 805 Available Available
M.Sc Economics 806 Available Available
M.Sc Economics 807 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 826 Available Available English
MA / M.Ed 827 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 828 Available Available English Urdu
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MA / M.Ed 831 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 837 Available Available English Urdu
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MA / M.Ed 844 Available Available
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MA / M.Ed 846 Available Available
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MA / M.Ed 851 Available Available
MA / M.Ed 855 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 874 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 877 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 878 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 880 Available Available
MSc. Mass Communicatio 967 Available Available
MSc. Mass Communicatio 968 Available Available
BA / B.Com 1421 Available Available
BA / B.Com 1422 Available Available
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BA / B.Com 1426 Available Available
BA / B.Com 1429 Available Available
BA / B.Com 1430 Available Available
BA / B.Com 1431 Available Available English Urdu
MA / M.Ed 1627 Available Available Urdu
B.Ed / ADE 1655 Available Available
PGD (CS) 3575 Available Available
PGD (CS) 3576 Available Available
PGD (CS) 3577 Available Available
PGD (CS) 3578 Available Available
PGD (CS) 3579 Available Available
MA Special Education 3611 Available Available
MA Special Education 3612 Available Available
MA Special Education 3613 Available Available
MA Special Education 3614 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4601 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4602 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4631 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4632 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4639 Available Available
MA Islamiat 4640 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 4645 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 4646 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 4647 Available Available
MSc. Gender and Women Studies 4648 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4659 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4660 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4661 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4662 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4667 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4668 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4669 Available Available
MSc. Pakistan Studies 4670 Available Available
Msc. Economics 4671 Available Available
Msc. Economics 4672 Available Available
MSc. Sociology 4681 Available Available
MSc. Sociology 4682 Available Available
MSc. Sociology 4683 Available Available
MSc. Sociology 4684 Available Available
MSc. Sociology 4685 Available Available
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ADE / B.Ed 5411 Available Available
MLIS 5500 Available Available
MLIS 5501 Available Available
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MLIS 5503 Available
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Col MBA/MPA 5563 Available On demand
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MLIS 5645 Available Available
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Diploma TEFL 5655 Available On demand
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MA TEFL 5664 Available On demand
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ADE / B.Ed 6401 Available Available
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MA / M.Ed 6500 Available Available English Urdu
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MA / M.Ed 6503 Available Available English Urdu
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MA / M.Ed 6506 Available Available English Urdu
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Class Code 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
KEY BOOKS KEY BOOKS KEY BOOKS
Matric 201 Available Available Available Available
Matric 202 Available Available Available Available
Matric 203 Available Available Available Available
Matric 204 Available Available Available Available
Matric 207 Available Available
Matric 218 Available Available
Matric 220 Available Available
Matric 221 Available Available
Matric 247 Available Available
Matric 248 Available Available
Intermediate 301 Available Available
Intermediate 308 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 311 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 312 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 315 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 316 Available Available
Intermediate 317 Available Available
Intermediate 321 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 322 Available Available
Intermediate 330 Available Available
Intermediate 343 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 346 Available Available
Intermediate 347 Available Available
Intermediate 356 Available Available
Intermediate 357 Available Available
Intermediate 359 Available Available
Intermediate 363 Available Available
Intermediate 364 Available Available
Intermediate 376 Available Available Available Available
Intermediate 386 Available Available
Intermediate 387 Available Available
Intermediate 394 Available Available
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BA / B.Com 402 Available Available English Urdu
BA / B.Com 404 Available Available Available Available
BA / B.Com 405 Available
BA / B.Com 406 Available Available Available Available
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Allama Iqbal Open University AIOU Assignment Marks For Spring 2018 http://aiouassignments.com/aiou-assignment-marks-for-spring-2018/ http://aiouassignments.com/aiou-assignment-marks-for-spring-2018/#respond Sun, 19 Nov 2017 05:07:33 +0000 http://aiouassignments.com/?p=510 AIOU Assignment Marks For Spring 2018 Allama Iqbal Open University AIOU Assignment Marks For Spring 2018 All those students who have submitted their AIOU assignment and waiting for their result, can get their AIOU Assignment Marks For spring 2018 AIOU assignment marks spring 2018 from this page. Its an fact that Allama Iqbal Open University has improve …

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AIOU Assignment Marks For Spring 2018

Allama Iqbal Open University AIOU Assignment Marks For Spring 2018

All those students who have submitted their AIOU assignment and waiting for their result, can get their AIOU Assignment Marks For spring 2018 AIOU assignment marks spring 2018 from this page. Its an fact that Allama Iqbal Open University has improve its examination system a lot. Now almost all the resources are available online. In our times we could never think about such a facility. Allama Iqbal Open University has now become the best distance learning university in South Asia. I hope that whenever HEC will include distance learning universities in its ranking A.I.O.U will get the first position in that ranking. This university has brought an educational revolution in the country. It has become a role model for all Asian and African distance learning universities. Even many European universities are following its model.

 

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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 http://aiouassignments.com/aiou-solved-assignment-1-code-8603-spring-2017/ http://aiouassignments.com/aiou-solved-assignment-1-code-8603-spring-2017/#respond Thu, 31 Aug 2017 10:04:37 +0000 http://aiouassignments.com/?p=371 Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8603 spring 2017 curriculum organization. The aiou solved assignment 1 code 8603 spring 2017 is now free available on the net. This subject curriculum organization is very important because it help us to prepare curriculum in well manner. Whenever you would like to get job we need to submit curriculum …

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Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8603 spring 2017 curriculum organization. The aiou solved assignment 1 code 8603 spring 2017 is now free available on the net. This subject curriculum organization is very important because it help us to prepare curriculum in well manner. Whenever you would like to get job we need to submit curriculum that show the importance of curriculum. The aiou solved assignment 1 code 8603 spring 2017 really help you in this regard. So without wasting time go to the net and find the assignment in complete solved form.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 EXISTING CURRICULUM

Q NO. WHAT ARE THE DEFICIENCIES IN THE EXISTING CURRICULUM OF THE GRADE IX? DISCUSS PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION AND SUGGEST STRATEGIES TO UPGRADE THE EXISTING CURRICULUM.
Answer:
Education is a must for civilization. Today a dark clouds hovers over Pakistan, where illiteracy is on the increase due to negligence of the government of Pakistan. Which spends only 1% of the GDP on education for 160 million population of the country. The illiteracy level which is tied to the poverty level goes hand in hand and the tragedy of Pakistan is that all the successive administrations since its birth 61 years ago have failed to address the issue of Education.

DEFICIENCIES IN THE EXISTING CURRICULUM OF THE GRADE IX
It is important to identify the relevant issues which have brought the illiteracy to this elevated level. In this high tech world this elevated level of poverty and illiteracy is not acceptable and it is important to identify the weakness of the government’s approach to the present level of education and rectify the situation.

The education system we have on our hands in 2008 is in total shambles and we are producing matriculate from these schools with very little skills and absolutely no command over the English language, which today is the language of science, technology, commerce, finance and marketing. Today even a country like China is putting higher emphasis on this language. Of course four Scandinavian countries declared English as a compulsory subject in their schools almost 40 years ago. Today in Pakistan instead of a one tier school system, we thru our callousness have created a 4 tier system of education in Pakistan, and they are as follows:
1. Cambridge Education system: this foreign education system is exclusively for the children of very rich so that they can after graduation go overseas for higher education on the foreign exchange provided to them by Pakistan Sate Bank
2. Pakistan Secondary Education system: this is provided by private and government schools, one for the middle class and other for the poor. The one for the middle class has a medium of instruction in English and the other one in Urdu. The children from these institutions if they happen to have good grades and the parental financial help go to the colleges of their interest and the rest either become clerk/cashiers/sales person in a shop/ worker in the factory/ any other work which comes their way.
3. Madressah Education System: this is supposed to provide religious education. The results of this education are in front of us. Except for few who do provide a true Islamic Education most of the students of Madressah have graduated from them with a perverted Ideology and has been a recruiting ground for terrorism.
4. This one has no name and consists of children who are born in misery and die in misery.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM

Principles of Curriculum Construction:-
Hayes has analyzed the existing curricula of Pakistan. He has also examine the process of Islamization of Education, particularly curriculum and text books in Pakistan, Which have undergone significant changes during the last few years and the ways in which it has affected the process of curriculum development in Pakistan. He also gives an assessment of the criticism against the curriculum revision process and some of the fundamental issues with which the policy makers of the country are confronted in present times. In this context he has particularly analysis the problems of women education and language in Pakistan. The main principles of curriculum construction may be mentioned as under:

1. PRINCIPLE OF CHILD CENTEREDNESS.
As modern education is child-centered the curriculum should also be child-centered. It should be based on the child’s needs, interests, abilities, aptitude, age level and circumstances. The child should be central figure in any scheme of curriculum construction. In fact, curriculum is meant to bring about the development of the child in the desired direction so that he is able to adjust well in life.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY

2. PRINCIPLE OF COMMUNITY CENTREDNESS:-
Though the child’s development and growth is the main consideration of curriculum construction, yet his social behavior is also to be suitably developed, both the individual development and the social development of the child deserve equal attention. He is to live in and for the society. Therefore, his needs and desires must be in conformity with the needs and desires of the society in which he is to live. The values, attitudes and skills that are prevailing in the community must be reflected in the curriculum. However, the society is not static. It is dynamic. Its needs and requirements are changing with the rapid developments taking place in all fields. While working for the development, this factor cannot be ignored.

3. PRINCIPLE OF ACTIVITY CENTREDNESS.
The curriculum should center round the multifarious activities of pupils. It should provide well selected activities according to the general interests and developmental stages of children. It should provide constructive, creative and project activities. For small children, play activities should also be provided. The purposeful activities both in the class-room and outside the class-room should be provided. It is through a network of activities that the desired experiences can be provided and consequently desirable behavioral changes can be brought about in children.

4. PRINCIPLE OF VARIETY:-
The curriculum should be broad-based so as to accommodate the needs of varied categories of; nods, so that they are able to take up subjects and participate in activities according their capacities and interests. The needs of pupils also change from place to place. For example, the pupils in rural areas, urban areas, and hilly areas will have different needs. The needs of boys and girls are also different. So these considerations should be reflected in the curriculum.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION

5. PRINCIPLE OF CO-ORDINATION AND INTEGRATION:-
Of course, the pupils are to be provided with selected experiences through various subjects and activities but these must be well integrated. Various subjects and activities have to serve the same ultimate purpose, the achievement of the aims of education. The activities and subjects should not be put in after. Tight compartments but these should be inter-related and well integrated so as to develop the whole child.

6. PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION:-
One of the main functions of education is to preserve and transmit our cultural heritage. This is essential! for human progress. Culture consists of traditions, customs, attitudes, skills, conduct, values and knowledge. However, the curriculum framers must make a suitable selection of the elements of culture, keeping n view their educational value and the developmental stage of pupils.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLE OF CREATIVITY.

7. PRINCIPLE OF CREATIVITY:-
The conservation of culture helps to sustain the society. The culture should not be simply transmitted but also enriched. There should be provision in the curriculum to develop he creative powers of the child so that he becomes a contributory member society. Reymont says, “In curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future, there must be definitely creative subjects.”

8. PRINCIPLE OF FORWARD LOOKING:-
Education is to enable the child to lead a successful social life. So the curriculum should not cater to the present needs of the child alone. The needs of his future life should also be considered The curriculum should also include knowledge, skills, experiences, influences etc. which will develop in the child abilities and power to make effective adjustments in the later life.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLES OF FLEXIBILITY

9. PRINCIPLE OF FLEXIBILITY:-
In our age, rapid developments are taking place in various fields. Consequently the needs of society are hanging. The content of curriculum cannot be same for all times to come. It should not be static. It must be dynamic and change with the changing times. It should reflect the latest trends in the field of education and psychology.

10. PRINCIPLE OF BALANCE:-
The curriculum must maintain a balance between subjects and activities, between direct and indirect experiences, between academic and vocational education, between compulsory and optional subjects, between formal and informal education, between individual and social aims of education etc.

11. PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY:-
Curriculum should be useful rather than ornamental. It should not only include subjects which owe their place in it to tradition. The curriculum must have practical utility for students. So there should be some provision for technical and vocational education in the curriculum. The various principles of curriculum construction should be kept in mind. Various regional and national conditions should also be considered. It fact, all considerations which will help in achieving the aims of education should be given due consideration

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 STRATEGIES TO UPGRADE CURRICULUM

STRATEGIES TO UPGRADE THE EXISTING CURRICULUM
Now this is a very tall order to remove all the discrepancies of the past 61 years. The question is where should we start? It is a mind boggling question and one wishes there was a simple answer. However as a starter on paper a single integrated education system has to be established, for that we need the minds of our best, from educationist to engineers, doctors, scientist, marketers, financiers, lawyers, agriculturist, all pooled together on one table to establish a curriculum from grade 1-10. Besides the subject of science, technology and commerce a higher level of emphasis has to be placed on mother tongue and the English language. The teachers have to be trained in these subjects with mastery. The next stage and a crucial one is the implementation of this new curriculum. This will be harder than the preparation of a new curriculum. The part of implementation will start with updating the education levels of teachers followed by selecting 10% of the primary and secondary schools of the country and introducing the new curriculum to them. The following year another 10% of schools will be brought into new system. If the program proceeds as planned Pakistan will have all its schools under the new progressive education system in 10 years. However, the fruit of this miracle will become visible in 2-3 years when the parents of the student will come to know of this revolutionary change in the education system. They will see the government schools providing education equal to or better than the private school at zero fee, there will be a massive movement of student to the govt. school. That will be a crucial time for the government to make sure that no corrupt practices take place and the transfer is executed in an orderly way Once the movement of children from private to government school has started that will be the time to ban the Cambridge system of education in Pakistan. In a unified Pakistan, there has to be one education system for all the children of Pakistan. This wil lead us to Unity, Faith and Discipline, the slogan made popular by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Quaid-e-Azam, and the Creator of Pakistan.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 CRITICALLY ANALYZE THE PROCESSES.

Q NO. 2: CRITICALLY ANALYZE THE PROCESS OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRICULUM IN PAKISTAN.
Answer:-
The process of curriculum development is facing serious issues in Pakistan. These issues are interference of bureaucrats, the absence of involvement of school teachers etc. Experts sitting in curriculum development boards do not use academic resources properly for revis.ng outdated sections of school textbooks. EAST offers innovative solutions for meeting the needs of curriculum development in Pakistan.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 WHAT IS CURRICULUM.

WHAT IS CURRICULUM?
While thinking about education, the most important idea that comes to mind is curriculum. Curriculum is a channel that school administration needs for giving educational and life skills to students. However, unluckily, in Pakistani context, this idea is highly misunderstood due to which students do not get enriched educational experience in schools.

CURRICULUM DOES NOT CHANGE IN PAKISTAN:-
Ghulam Haider in his article, “Process of Curriculum Development in Pakistan,” says that curriculum is not a static process, but it is a dynamic exercise that must undergo changes according to society’s new demands In Pakistan, curriculum development is a static process. There are many reasons for the failure in developing proper curriculum. Some of them are discussed below. Issues in curriculum development

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 CURRICULUM IS OUTDATED.
1. Curriculum is outdated:-
Firstly, the curriculum is outdated, which does not meet the local needs of Pakistani society. Raja Omer Shabbir in his article, “The curriculum problems,” notes that our present generation is learning the same knowledge that previous two generations have learnt. As students from different parts of the world get difficult mathematical and scientific knowledge by activity-based learning, our students are forced to know scientific concepts through cramming. For example, in school textbooks of Mathematics at primary level, the concepts of shapes in geometry lessons are not written correctly. One example is of sphere and circle. Most of the teachers do rot know that a sphere is a solid shape and a circle is a flat shape. Many teachers teach students that the shape of sun is a circle and not a sphere. It is sad situation that experts designing school textbooks of mathematics at primary level do not pay attention to include the concept of solid and flat shapes together.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 INVOLVEMENT OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS.

2. INVOLVEMENT OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS:-
Secondly, both Haider and Shabbir note that involvement of government officers in the development of Pakistani curriculum is proving harmful to our education system. Haider suggests that the current process of curriculum development is based on a uniform policy for the whole country that has its particular aims and goals, but he thinks that it is not possible to apply national educational policy to different regions of the country with equality. For example, there are many underdeveloped areas of Pakistan, where parents do not have adequate resources to send their children to schools. The drop-out rate from schools is high, because parents cannot afford the expense of education easily. Hence, a new educational policy has to be made by government officers for poor students, so that their problems of education can be solved. One way of doing this is to build schools, where students are allowed to study in evening time, and where books having basic knowledge about core subjects such as English, Mathematics, Science, Urdu and Islam are taught by trained teachers.

3. LACK OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH:-
Thirdly, the problem that the process of curriculum development faces in Pakistan is improper academic research for writing school textbooks. Haider points out those experts sitting in the curriculum development boards use materials of their own choice for instruction in schools. He says that most of the times the chosen content is not up to the mark. While going through textbooks approved by several board systems in the country, it becomes clear that no suitable research/evaluation system is created to revise curriculum. For example, in computer books of Class 9th, students still learn serial and parallel ports. However, it is noted that all electronic devices created in present day are connected with computers by USB port.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 ABSENCE OF SCHOOL TEACHER
4. Absence of school teachers’ involvement Fourthly, it is seen that the academic experience of teachers from different schools is also not considered in designing and revising school curriculum. Daniel Tanner and Laurel N. Tanner in their book, “Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice,” suggest that without intelligent participation of school teachers, meaningful curriculum development will not be achieved. Tanner and Tanner say that teachers, who are involved in bringing out educational change, accept and adopt the new ideas more quickly than those teachers who are not involved in carrying out change. Useful evidence suggests that in countries where well-educated teachers were not involved in the curriculum development process. they did not accept new changes in school textbooks.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 RESULT OF WEAK ACADEMIC SKILLS

RESULT OF WEAK ACADEMIC SKILLS OF RESEARCHERS:-
With lack of academic skills in researchers responsible for designing curriculum for schools, the most important feature of curriculum, i.e. content suffers a lot. Students follow rote-learning process, because the content of their books does not match to their educational skills. In order to make students problem-solvers, Shabbir argues that our books must contain questions that relate to problems we face in our daily life. By answering those questions, students will learn to solve issues in difficult situations. For example, while studying the concept of speed in science, students must be given questions related to real-life examples of speed such as speed of a car etc., so that they know the application of the concept.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 SOCIETY AFFECT

Q NO. 3: HOW DOES AND TO WHAT EXTENT A SOCIETY AFFECT CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT? DISCUSS IN DETAIL.

Answer:-
The debate between traditionalists and progressives over curriculum (and I use this term to include both content and pedagogy) is essentially a debate on how best to prepare students to live in society. Differences of opinion about curriculum stem from deeper differences about the nature of learning, the nature of society, and the purpose of schools in a democracy. Traditionalists structure schools to prepare students for filling roles in society–not for transforming it. They do not see that traditional approaches may contribute to maintaining the inequity and injustice that exist in our society. Progressives see society as needing improvement and the schools as serving the function of helping students become thinking citizens who can contribute to creating a more just society. John Dewey, the leading progressive educator of the century, wrote that “education is the fundamental method of social progress and reform.” About a year ago, while preparing a talk on the subject of this essay, I thought it would be interesting to find out what people thought were the major influences on education during this century. I consulted one of the chronologies of “key events of the century” that are being published as we near the year 2000. There were five references in the index under “Education.” Four of the references were to three progressive educators. There were two to Maria Montessori–the establishment of her first school in 1907 and her death in 1952; one to John Dewey – the publication in 1916 of Democracy in Education ; and one to A. S. Neill – the founder of Summer hill School in England in 1921, a school governed by students. The other reference surprised me. It was to the publication (1920) by William McDougall of Is America Safe for Democracy? Which argued, among its other concerns, for the superiority of some races of people over others.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 WORK OF MONTESSORI

It is clear how the work of Montessori, Dewey, and Neill pertains to the debate over content and pedagogy. Maria Montessori was an Italian physician who established a school to educate children who were labeled “mentally retarded.” Her schools were so successful that her approaches spread internationally, and parents now pay substantial tuition to have their “bright” children attend Montessori schools. Montessori’s writings and methods have influenced the progressive movement. One of her central principles was respect for the child’s intelligence: “And so we discovered that education is not something which the teacher does, but that it is a natural process which develops spontaneously in the human being.” Dewey wanted schools to teach students to think: “Skill obtained apart from thinking is not connected with any sense of the purposes for which it is to be used…. It leaves a man at the mercy of his routine habits and of the authoritative control of others…. Information severed from thoughtful action is dead, a mind-crushing load.” Neill’s fundamental belief was that the child is wise and realistic. He wrote: “When my first wife and I began the school, we had one main idea: to make the school fit the child instead of making the child fit the school.”

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 CONTINUED

The relation of McDougall’s work to the debate between progressives and traditionalists may be less obvious. McDougall was a professor of psychology at Harvard University and one of a group of psychologists and geneticists from leading American universities involved early in this century in the eugenics movement. The eugenicists’ attempt in the 1920s and 1930s to prove the superiority of certain racial, national, and social-class groups had important consequences for education. One eugenic st, for example, was the psychologist Carl Brigham, the secretary of the College Board, who developed the SAT. a test that influences curriculum to this day. Other eugenicists were even more prominent than Brigham. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology geneticist Frederick Adams Woods said that there was not a ‘grain of proof” that “environment can alter the salient mental and moral traits in any reasonable degree from what they were determined to be through innate influences.” Edward East, a Harvard geneticist, wrote, “Gene packets of African origin are not valuable supplements to the gene packets of European origin; it is the white germ plasm that counts.” The eugenics movement in this country disappeared after the Nazis took the belief of racial superiority to its logical and horrific conclusions in the early 1940s. But the ideas still persist. The Bell Curve (1994), for example, states: “Putting it all together, success and failure in the American economy and all that goes with it, are increasingly a matter of the genes that people inherit.”

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 CONNECTION OF EUGENICS.
The connection of the eugenics movement to schools is this. The pronouncements of prominent scientists tend to influence educational policy and practice. For example, if educators believe that genes determine intelligence and/or character, and that some groups of people are superior, they are likely to accept schools functioning as sorting mechanisms. They will value certain kinds of assessment instruments as valid tools to sort and classify students. Such educators will treat the child who doesn’t fit the school as if it is the child’s fault and require that he or she either do better in the existing system or accept a less rewarding future.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 MATHEMATICS A VIBRANT.
Examining the current controversy in California about mathematics curriculum will illuminate the connection between the debate over curriculum (content and pedagogy) and people’s beliefs about learning. This controversy has its roots in the 1973 California Mathematics Framework, which stated in part: “Mathematics becomes a vibrant, vital subject when points of view are argued and, for this reason, interaction among pupils should be encouraged. A significant feature of a mathematics learning environment is the spirit of free and open investigation…. Mathematics instructional material should be relevant to the pupil’s interests and needs and should provide for pupil experimentation.” Although this framework described a sharp departure from traditional practice, it did not cause any controversy. It took 20 years for opponents of the reform to emerge, organize, and eventually change state policy to endorse traditional instruction. As part of the debate over the nature of mathematics standards, the California board of education invited E.D. Hirsch Jr. to speak to it. Hirsch (speaking in April 1997) advocated a traditionalist position, based on the research of leading scientists who agree ” that varied and repeated practice leading to rapid recall and automaticity in mathematics is a necessary prerequisite to higher-order problem-solving skills in both mathematics and the sciences.”

One effect of emphasizing rapid recall and automaticity is that students come to believe that mathematics is a set of rules to memorize rather than an exciting, beautiful, and useful discipline. Young people deserve to experience the excitement of mathematics and to have its power at their disposal, both for their enjoyment and for its use as a problem-solving tool. The emphasis on rapid recall and automaticity also causes many students to detest mathematics–and often school. Every 4-year-old I’ve ever met was excited about going to school and eager to learn. I know many 14-year-olds, however, who took upon school, and mathematics in particular, as a burden. That need not be the case. Learning can take pace in an atmosphere where students’ thinking is respected, their natural curiosity nurtured, their intensity engaged, and where they enjoy learning. That is not to say that learning will always be easy. But people can and do enjoy all sorts of challenges. Young people deserve to experience the excitement of mathematics and to have its power at their disposal.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 TROUBLESOME EFFECTS.
The most troublesome effect of emphasizing rapid recall and automaticity is that many students memorize rules to pass a test but do not understand what they are doing or why they are doing it. Many years ago, Stanley Erlwanger published a series of interviews with students. One that stuck in my mind was with a student who was asked to compute three-fourths plus one-fourth He solved the problem in two different ways. First he wrote 3/4 + 1/4 = 4/8 = 1/2. Then he drew a circle and divided it into four quarters. Pointing to the sections of the circle, he concluded, “IVs a whole” and wrote 3/4 + 1/4 = 1. When asked, “What method did you use when you got four-eighths?” the student responded: “That’s the way that they taught me.” At one point, when asked, “How do you know which answer is right?” the student said, “It depends on which method you’re told to use, and you use that method and you come out with the answer, and that’s what answer is in the key.” When pushed to choose which is correct, he replied, “The one where you add the denominators and the numerators because that’s what method they taught me to do in my booklet, and they didn’t teach me to do it with diagrams.” The tragedy here is not that the student forgot the rule, but rather that he did not trust his own thinking. His confidence in his ability to think had been undermined by the methods of instruction. Oversimplifying the learning process is fraught with danger.

Let us be clear about what the curriculum controversy is not about. No reformer that I have ever heard of claims that children should not know basic skills. The disagreement is over whether basic skills wit be learned by rote memorization or in the context of activities that are engaging and meaningful to the student. The argument is about the relative value of understanding vs. automatically. Traditionalists tend to see learning as either memorization or operant conditioning (the stimulus/response cycle that the behaviorist school of psychology defines as learning). Progressives see it as a complex process of making sense of new information through reflection and interaction. But of course, as the history outlined above shows, the controversy is as much about the purposes of schools in a democratic society as it is about how people learn

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHES.
People on both sides of the debate regularly appeal to research in their arguments, but dismiss research that doesn’t support their beliefs. Hirsch, for example, dismisses educational research as being Inconsequential, and stresses the importance of the research of selected psychologists. Scientists, however, are not immune from bias. The highly regarded psychologist H.H. Goddard, for example. exemplified elitist values. In a series of lectures at Princeton University (1919), he spoke of the “perfect government–Aristocracy in Democracy.” A major conclusion of his lectures was that the research on intelligence showed that “the social efficiency of a group of human beings depends upon recognizing the mental limitation of each one and so organizing society that each person has work to do that is within his mental capacity.” Are we to believe that current researchers are less influenced by their values than those of the past? Is it only a coincidence that the opposition to mathematics reform increased after the nation made a commitment to achieving the democratic goal that all students would learn mathematics? The debate over curriculum is emotional for progressive educators because they believe that the way students are treated will determine the future of the society. If schools respect young people’s .ntelligence and support their ability to think for themselves, then perhaps the social and economic inlust ces, violence, genocide, and environmental degradation that have been so prevalent in the past century can be reduced even eliminated. It will be helpful in reaching this goal If educators can rid themselves and their students of the mistaken notion that some individuals or groups are better than others.

FIND ALSO:- AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017

It is not too much to hope that schools can be the leading force in making progress toward a better world. In this regard, I recall the words of Frederick Douglass, the escaped slave and liberation leader The whole history of the progress of human liberty shows that all concessions yet made to her august claims have been born of earnest struggle…. If there is no struggle there is no progress…. Power never concedes anything without a demand. It never did and it never will.” Douglass knew that learning s power. As a slave, he was forbidden to learn to read. It would be no surprise to Douglass that there is intense opposition to educational reforms that are aimed at teaching people to think for themselves. John and Evelyn Dewey wrote in 1915, “If we train our children to take orders, to do things simply because they are told to, and fail to give them confidence to act and think for themselves, we are putting an almost insurmountable obstacle in the way of overcoming the present defects of our (social) system and of establishing the truth of democratic ideas.” This is still a powerful argument for progressive education.

CLICK THE LINK:- AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 QUESTION 4 TO 5

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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 http://aiouassignments.com/aiou-solved-assignment-2-code-8606-spring-2017/ http://aiouassignments.com/aiou-solved-assignment-2-code-8606-spring-2017/#comments Sun, 27 Aug 2017 08:46:31 +0000 http://aiouassignments.com/?p=354 Aiou solved assignment 2 code 8606 spring 2017 citizenship education and community engagement. The aiou solved assignment 2 code 8606 spring 2017 related with citizenship education and community engagement is prepared by special subject experts. The students of B.Ed. program can find this assignment in complete form and we must request to all students please …

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Aiou solved assignment 2 code 8606 spring 2017 citizenship education and community engagement. The aiou solved assignment 2 code 8606 spring 2017 related with citizenship education and community engagement is prepared by special subject experts. The students of B.Ed. program can find this assignment in complete form and we must request to all students please share this aiou solved assignment 2 code 8606 spring 2017 with your B.Ed. class mates.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 FOR B.ED.

Q.1: EXPLAIN THE FORMS OF SOCIAL CONTROL. DISCUSS SOME OF THE INFLUENTIAL SOCIAL AGENTS OF THE SOCIETY?
Answer: The common distinction is between the formal (repressive or coercive) and the informal (persuasive or softer) forms of control. It has the universal sanction and acclaimed by many sociologists. Social control may be positive or negative, i.e., consisting of rewards or punishment and repressive measures respectively. Similarly, social control may be planned (deliberate) or unplanned (incidental). If it is planned, it may be either formal (organized) or informal unorganized).
INFORMAL AND UNPLANNED (INCIDENTAL) CONTROL:
Informal social control, as the term implies, is used by people casually. Norms are enforced through the informal sanctions. These norms include folkways, customs, mores, values, conventions, fashions and public opinion, etc.

Ritual and ceremony also act as instruments of informal control. But ceremony plays a less important role in modem society than in the traditional societies. Informal control often takes the form of a look, nudge or frown which says ‘behave yourself’ or ‘get into line’.

Methods and techniques of informal control are numerous. They vary with the purpose and the character of the group in question. For example, in a homogeneous primary group type of village community, the gossip may be a potent means of enforcing conformity but would be of little importance in the personal life of a metropolis like Mumbai.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 SOCIAL SITUATION

They also vary greatly from one social situation to another. They are positive and negative both. Awards, prizes, wealth and power over others are examples of positive control through physical medium. Gossip, smiles, praise, persuasion, badges and titles are examples of positive control by symbolic means. Negative social control is represented by satire, laughter, raising of an eyebrow, opprobrium, name calling, negative gossip and ridicule, threats, physical torture and ostracism, etc. Words and phrases (epithet, watchwords and slogans) are other means of informal control. They serve as collective representations symbolizing the emotional attitudes of the group.

The above techniques of informal control are typically employed within primary groups such as families. Individuals learn such techniques early in their childhood socialization to cultural norms—folkways, mores, values, etc. Other than the family, these methods and techniques are also exercised by personal friends, colleagues and co-workers at the workplace.

Informal social control is based on this popular belief that ‘the all-seeing eyes of Gods are everywhere’. It acts as mores (a controlling device). A belief in spiritual persons, who are omnipresent and omniscient. Introduces an imagined presence which serves as a powerful controlling device.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 FORMAL AND PLANNED CONTROL

FORMAL AND PLANNED (DELIBERATE) CONTROL:
Informal methods of social control are not adequate in enforcing and conforming of obedient behavior in all cases and in every situation. It can serve as a last resort when socialization and informal sanctions do not bring about desired result. In secondary groups and mass society where relations between individuals are impersonal, the primary group controls are not so effective. Control is then exercised through some agencies and formal institutions such as state, law, education, government, courts, police, military, administrators, corporate managers and bureaucrats, etc.
There are formal controls of licensing boards, professional organizations and trade unions also. As against the informal social controls, which grow out of necessities of the group or the society and which are the outcome of spontaneous growth, the formal social controls are deliberately created and imposed by man themselves. But, these are less powerful forms as they are not based on human instincts and basic necessities of life. Thus, they have not much importance in primary groups. Only one example will suffice to clarify this point. The law banning child marriage was passed as early as in 1929 in India but the thousands of child manages are still performed on a single auspicious day of Akshay Tritiya.

Thus, laws are not all-powerful. Laws which go against widespread customs are resisted and customs carry the day as it comes. Laws that are unpopular, such as prohibition of gutka (mixture of tobacco and flavoured betelnut), or use of plastic carry bags become difficult to enforce.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 PRIMARY GROUP

The primary group tST)e of rural community is fast disappearing as a result of industrialization, urbanization and globalization. The ineffectiveness of informal means of social control (mores, tradition, primary group. group opinion, etc.) of personal behavior in modern secondary society accounts for the increasing resort to such means as law, police, courts, etc. To make formal means (law) more effective the technique of propaganda is used.

The socialization that we receive in childhood has a lasting effect on our ability to interact with others in society. In this lesson, we identify and discuss four of the most influential agents of socialization in childhood: family, school, peers, and media.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 FOR SOCIALIZATION

SOCIALIZATION:-
How do we learn to interact with other people? Socialization is a lifelong process during which we learn about social expectations and how to interact with other people. Nearly all of the behavior that we consider to be ‘human nature’ is actually learned through socialization. And, it is during socialization that we learn how to walk, talk, and feed ourselves, about behavioral norms that help us fit in to our society, and so much more. Socialization occurs throughout our life, but some of the most important socialization occurs in childhood. So, let’s talk about the most influential agents of socialization. These are the people or groups responsible for our socialization during childhood – including family, school, peers, and mass media.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 FAMILY

FAMILY:-
There is no better way to start than to talk about the role of family in our social development, as family is usually considered to be the most important agent of socialization. As infants, we are completely dependent on others to survive. Our parents, or those who play the parent role, are responsible for teaching us to function and care for ourselves. They, along with the rest of our family, also teach us about close relationships, group life, and how to share resources. Additionally, they provide us with our first system of values, norms, and beliefs – a system that is usually a reflection of their own social status, religion, ethnic group, and more. For example, Alexander, a young boy who lives in America, was born to an immigrant family. He grew up bilingual and was taught the importance of collectivistic values through socialization with his family. This experience differs drastically from someone born to an older, ‘traditional’ American family y that would emphasize the English language and individualistic values.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 FOR SCHOOLS

SCHOOLS:-
The next important agent of childhood socialization is the school. Of course, the official purpose of school is to transfer subject knowledge and teach life skills, such as following directions and meeting deadlines. But, students don’t just learn from the academic curriculum prepared by teachers and school administrators. In school, we also learn social skills through our interactions with teachers, staff, and other students. For example, we learn the importance of obeying authority and that to be successful, we must learn to be quiet, to wait, and sometimes to act interested even when were not. Alexander, like other children, might even learn things from his teacher that she did not intent to teach. For instance, he might learn that it’s best to yell out an answer instead of raising his hand. When he does so, he gets rare attention from the teacher and is hardly ever punished. Peers:

Another agent of socialization that ‘elates to school is our peer group. Unlike the agents we’ve already discussed – family and school – peer groups give us an opportunity as children to form relationships with others on our own terms, plus learn things without the direction of an adult. When you were a 16-year-old, how many times did you complain to your parent(s), “All of my friends are ;doing so and so). Why can’t I? It isn’t fair!” As this all-too-common example indicates, our friends play a very mportant role in our lives. This is especially true during adolescence, when peers influence our tastes in music, clothes, and so many other aspects of our lives, as the now-common image of the teenager always on a cell phone reminds us. But friends are important during other parts of the life course as well We rely on them for fun, for emotional comfort and support, and for companionship. That is the upside of friendships.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 DIFFERENT TYPES OF SCHOOL COMMUNITY

Q.2: GIVE YOUR ARGUMENTS TO EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SCHOOL COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP.
Answer:
WHAT IS SCHOOL?
School is a training center helps develop pupils into efficient social being and to train them to further educate the backward members of their society. The school is a special environment where a certain quality of life types of activities and occupations are provided with The object of securing child’s development along desirable lines (Mishra, 2007). School is an open system and a social organization which thrives on the effective interrelationship within it and with its relevant communities (Nwankwo, Nwokafor, Ogunsanwo& Ighalo, 1985).School interacts with people of the community and is linked with the larger society. The function of the traditional school was to transmit the social heritage of the community. Its role was too academic in nature. The modern sociological view of education lay down that school constantly draw upon social life and activities for its subject matter, its methods of teaching and its methods of work. The school will serve as a society in miniature-a small but ideal community. It will be a model for the society around. It will be the people’s school, but at the same time it will give new direction to the people and community. It will act as a watch dog against social degeneration. By enhancing its own status and contribution it will enhance the status of the community as a whole (Sidhu, 2007). There must be a conscious and continuous intercourse, a free give and take between the little world of the school and bigger one outside. The school has to arrange for the students opportunities to participate in social services, health campaigns, development plans, and other public activities. The divorce between school and community is likely to make teaching artificial.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 ABOUT COMMUNITY

WHAT IS COMMUNITY?
Community according to Jones and George (2006) refers to physical location like towns or cities or to social milieus like ethnic neighbor hoods in which an organization is located. A community provides ar organization with the physical and social infrastructure that allows it to operate; it utilities and labour force; the homes in which its managers and employees live; other organization such as hospital, town services, carriers and theatres that service their needs and soon. The above definition clearly describes school community. The school community physical locations are the towns or cities in which it is located. The schools source their physical and social infrastructure from its communities. To Hornby (2000), community refers to “a group of people of the same religion, race, occupation, etc or with shared interest”. To Omolayole (1998), in the urban center, “community will normally refer to all those with common interest living in a given ideographical space not considered too large to make it unwieldy whereas in the rural areas, the community will strictly comprise people with the same origin”. Strictly speaking and for the purpose of the paper the definition on rural area is adopted for the concept of local community.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 SCHOOL COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP

SCHOOL COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP:-
The processes of social interaction are the bases for creating social relationship. According to Calhoun, Light and Keller (1998) social relationship is relatively enduring patterns of interaction between two or more people. Most people have many social relationships, from casual acquaintance to intimate friendships and close family bond. School community relationship is a two-way symbiotic arrangement through which the school and the community co-operate with each other for the realization of goals of the community and vice versa. It is the degree of understanding and goodwill, which exists between the school and the community
(Okorie, Ememe&Egu 2009).School as an open system and asocial organization thrives on the effective interrelationship within it and with its relevant communities. What happens in a school affects the community, and what happens in the community affects school (Nwankwo, Nwokafor, Ogunsanwo&Ighalo, 1985). This means that community builds its schools and the schools build their community (Sidhu, 2007). Therefore, school community interdependence is unbreakable. There is a reciprocal relationship. The two works for one another and the two have direct impact on one another. If schools are expected to be successful in their primary mission of educating the community children, they need to know a great deal about the community and the families from which the children come. This means that the schod cannot exist in isolation but in co-operation with the community in which it finds itself (Ihebereme, 2008)•The school has to arrange for the students opportunities to participate in social services, health campaigns, development plans, and other public activities. The divorce between school and community is likely to make teaching artificial.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 SCHOOL PROPERTY

This school is not a place where only the children are educated by the whole community The school building, furniture, equipment, human resources, etc. are public property. They should be unhesitatingly placed at the disposal of the community after school hours. The school teachers should also come forward and place their knowledge and experience at the disposal of community and assume the role of guides and leaders of the social group. The school library and play grounds can especially be of significant service to the community (Ihebereme, 2008). Effective school community relationship raises student persistence and achievement (Eccles& Harold, 1996; Lareau, 1996; Nieto, 2004), Nieto(2004) contends that student achievement is positively associated with parent involvement in school and that, school which encourage high levels of parent involvement outperform their counterparts where there are lower levels of involvement.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 TYPES OF SCHOOL COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP

TYPES OF SCHOOL COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP:-
There are different types of relationship which exist between school and community. According Pawlas (2005) identified six types of school community relationship:

PARENTING:-
Schools and communities relate as parents of a student. Families must provide for the health and safety of children, and maintain a home environment that encourages earning and good behaviour in school. Schools provide training and information to help families understand their children development and how to support the changes they undergo. Communication: School must reach out to families with information about the school programmes and student reports, as well as new information on topics such as school choice and making the transition from elementary school to higher grades. Communication must be in forms that families find it understandable and useful. For example, school can use translator to reach parents who don”t speak English well and it must be two way, with educators paying attention to the concerns and needs of families. Volunteering: Parents can make significant contribution to the environment and functions of a school. School can get the most out of this process by creating flexible schedules, so more parents can participate, and by working to match the talents and interest of parent to the needs of students, teachers, and administrators.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 LEARNING

LEARNING:-
With the guidance and support of teachers, family members can supervise and assist their children at home with homework assignment and other school related activities. Decision Making: School can give parents meaningful roles in the school decision making process, and provide parents, with training and information so they can make the most of those opportunities. This opportunity should be open to all segments of the community ,not just people who have the most time and energy to spend on school affairs. Collaboration with the Community: Schools can help families gain access to support services offered by other agencies such as health care, cultural events, tutoring service, and after school child care programmes. They also can help families and community groups provide services to the community, such as recycling programmes and food pantries.

IMPORTANCE OF SCHOOL COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP
School community relationship is today gaining more grounds than ever before. School administrators all over the world are paying more attention to the role of communities in managing schools. Hence the idea school based management is always on promotion. According to Fiore (2006) when families, schools and community institutions (e.g. local business, community colleges and health agencies) collectively agree upon their goals and decide how to reach them, everyone benefits. He identifies the followings as the
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 IMPORTANCE OF SCHOOL COMMUNITY

IMPORTANCE OF SCHOOL COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP:
1. Schools enjoy the informed support of families and community members. Families experience many opportunities to contribute to their children’s education, and communities look forward to educated, responsible workforce. Benefits accrue to the staff of schools and community agencies as well they can observe boosts in morale, heightened engagement in their work, and a feeling that their work will net results.

AIOU CODE 8602 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 ENVIRONMENT

Communities can provide schools with a context and environment that can either complement and reinforce the values, culture, and learning the school provide for their students or negates everything the school strive to accomplish. Communities can furnish schools and students in them with crucial financial support system as well as the social and cultural values necessary for success and survival in contemporary society. Communities have the potential to extend a variety of opportunities to students and to their families-social, cultural and vocational. Schools, in turn, offer communities a focal point of educational services for children. Schools have the potential to build well-educated citizens ready to take on responsibilities as contributing community members.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 WORKING TOGETHER

By working together, schools, families, and communities can prepare for a more promising future. In urban communities struggling against violence, unemployment, and deteriorating institutions, school- community relationship offers hope for those who may have given on the social institution in their neighborhood and cities Rural communities searching for opportunities to revitalize themselves in a technologically sophisticated society can discover ways to bring themselves into the information age by intertwining school and community improvement initiatives.

Community participation in school activities helps community members have a more positive view of the school. It helps children have better attendance, better behaviour and high academic achievement motivation. Community members need to be supportive by involving themselves in school programmes and activities such as Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) meetings, athletic events, plays, parties and other related engagements. Despite all the benefits associated with such involvement, many community members do not regard engagement in school programmes with all seriousness (Okubanjo, 2006). According to Idaho Falls School District (1991) school community relationship helps to improve the quality of education for all children. The school noted the following as some of the importance of school community relationship:

AIOU CODE 8602 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 PARENTS RESPONSIBLITY

1. It helps parents and other citizens recognize their responsibility for the quality of education provided by their schools;
2. It fosters community understanding of the need for constructive change and solicit community advice on how to achieve stated school goals;
3. It involves community members in the work of the schools and the solving of school problems.
4. It helps identifies non-parent groups such as senior citizens and promote the involvement of these persons in school activities and programmes
5. It helps earn the good will, respect and confidence of the community with regard to school staff and services;
6. It promotes a genuine spirit of cooperation between the school and the community and sets up channels of sharing the leadership in improving community life;
7. It helps develop community understanding of all aspects of school operation; it ascerta ns community attitudes towards issues in school; it helps discover the community aspirations for the education of their children;
8. It helps secure adequate financial support for a sound school programme.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Q.3: EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING.
Answer: One of the most difficult aspects of becoming a teacher is learning how to motivate your students. It is also one of the most important. Students who are not motivated will not learn effectively. They won’t retain information, they won’t participate and some of them may even become disruptive. A student may be unmotivated for a variety of reasons: They may feel that they have no interest in the subject, find the teachers methods un-engaging or be distracted by external forces. It may even come to light that a student who appeared unmotivated actually has difficulty learning and is need of special attention. While motivating students can be a difficult task, the rewards are more than worth it. Motivated students are more excited to learn and participate. Simply put: Teaching a class full of motivated students is enjoyable for teacher and student alike. Some students are self-motivated, with a natural love of learning But even with the students who do not have this natural drive, a great teacher can make learning fun and Inspire them to reach their full potential.

1. Praise Students in Ways Big and Small Recognize work in class, display good work in the classroom and send positive notes home to parents, hold weekly awards in your classroom, organize academic pep rallies to honor the honor roll, and even sponsor a Teacher Shootout section in the student newspaper to acknowledge student’s hard work.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 REALISTIC EXPECTATIONS

2. Expect Excellence Set high, yet realistic expectations. Make sure to voice those expectations. Set short terms goals and celebrate when they are achieved

3. Spread Excitement like a Virus Show your enthusiasm in the subject and use appropriate, concrete and understandable examples to help students grasp it. For example, I love alliteration. Before I explain the concept to students, we “improv” subjects they’re interested in. After learning about alliteration, they brainstorm alliterative titles for their chosen subjects.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 CONTINUE

4. How to Motivate Students: Mix It Up It’s a classic concept and the basis for differentiated instruction, but it needs to be said: using a variety of teaching methods caters to all types of learners. By doing this in an orderly way, you can also maintain order in your classroom. In a generic example for daily instruction, journal for 10 minutes to open class; introduce the concept for 15 minutes; discuss/group work for 15 minutes; Q&A or guided work time to finish the class. This way, students know what to expect everyday and have less opportunity to act up.

5. Assign Classroom Jobs With students, create a list of jobs for the week. Using the criteria of your choosing. let students earn the Opportunity to pick their classroom jobs for the next week. These jobs can cater to their interests and skills. Classroom Job Examples
• Post to the Class blog
• Update Calendar
• Moderate review games
• Pick start of class music
• Watch class pet
• Public relations officer (address people who visit class)
• Standard class jobs like Attendance, Cleaning the boards, putting up chairs, etc.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 HAND OVER CONTROL

6. Hand Over Some Control If students take ownership of what you do in class, then they have less room to complain (though we all know, it’ll never stop completely). Take an audit of your class, asking what they enjoy doing, what helps them learn, what they’re excited about after class. Multiple choice might be the best way to start if you predict a lot of “nothing” or “watch movies” answers. After reviewing the answers. integrate their ideas into your lessons or guide a brainstorm session on how these ideas could translate into class. On a systematic level, let students choose from elective classes in a collegiate format. Again, they can tap into their passion and relate to their subject matter if they have a choice.

7. Open-format Fridays You can also translate this student empowerment into an incentive program. Students who attended class all week, completed all assignments and obeyed all classroom rules can vote on Friday’s activities (lecture, discussion, watching a video, class jeopardy, acting out a scene from a play or history).

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 BUDGETING FOR FAMILY

8. Relating Lessons to Students’ Lives Whether it is budgeting for family Christmas gifts. Choosing short stories about your town, tying in the war of 1812 with Iraq, rapping about ions, or using Pop Culture Print ables, students will care more if they identify themselves or their everyday lives in what they’re learning.

9. Track Improvement In those difficult classes, it can feel ike a never-ending uphill battle, so try to remind students that they’ve come a long way. Set achievable, short-term goals, emphasis improvement, keep self-evaluation forms to fill out and compare throughout the year. or revisit mastered concepts that they once struggled w th to refresh their confidence.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 REWARD POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

10. Reward Positive Behavior Outside the Classroom Tie service opportunities, cultural experiences, extracurricular activities into the curriculum for extra credit or as alternative options on assignments. Have students doing Habitat for Humanity calculate the angle of the freshly cut board, count the nails in each stair and multiply the number of stairs to find the total number of nails; write an essay about their experience volunteering or their how they felt during basketball tryouts; or any other creative option they can come up with. The idea of cash incentives is a timely yet controversial topic, so I’d like to look at this attempt to “buy achievement” through a different lens. It seems people are willing to dump some money into schools, so let’s come up with better ways to spend it.

11. Plan Dream Field Trips With your students, brainstorm potential field trips tiered by budget. Cash incentive money can then be earned toward the field trips for good behavior, performance, etc. The can see their success in the classroom as they move up from the decent zoo field trip to the good state capitol day trip to the unbelievable week-long trip to New York City. Even though the reward is delayed, tracking progress will give students that immediate reward.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 COLLEGE FUND ACCOUNTS

12. College Fund Accounts College dreams motivate athletes; why not adapt the academic track to be just as tangible for hard-working student? One way is to keep a tally of both the cash value and the potential school choice each student has earned. As freshman, they see they’ve earned one semester at the local junior college. By second semester of Junior year, they’re going to four-years at State for half the price. By graduation, watch out free ride to their dream school.

13. Encourage Students Students look to teachers for approval and positive reinforcement, and are more likely to be enthusiastic about learning if they feel their work is recognized and valued. You should encourage open communication and free thinking with your students to make them feel important. Be enthusiastic. Praise your students often. Recognize them for their contributions. If your classroom is a friendly place where students feel heard and respected, they will be more eager to learn. A “good job” or “nice work” can go a long way.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 WAYS TO ENCOURAGE STUDENTS

14. Get Them Involved One way to encourage students anc teach them responsibility is to get them involved in the classroom. Make participating fun by giving each student a job to do. Give students the responsibility of tidying up or decorating the classroom. Assign a student to erase the blackboard or pass out materials. you are going over a reading in class, ask students to take turns reading sections out loud. Make students work in groups and assign each a task or role. Giving students a sense of ownership allows them to feel accomplished and encourages active participation in class.

15. Offer Incentives Setting expectations and making reasonable demands encourages students to participate, but sometimes students need an extra push in the right direction. Offering students small incentives makes learning fun and motivates students to push themselves. Incentives can range from small to large giving a special privilege to an exemplary student, to a class pizza party if the average test score rises. Rewards give students a sense of accomplishment and encourage them to work with a goal in mind.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 AVOID MONOTONY

16. Get Creative Avoid monotony by changing around the structure of your class. Teach through games and discussions instead of lectures, encourage students to debate and enrich the subject matter with visual aids, like colorful charts, diagrams and videos. You can even show a movie that effectively illustrates a topic or theme. Your physical classroom should never be boring: use posters, models, student projects and seasonal themes to decorate your classroom, and create a warm, stimulating environment.

FIND HERE:- AIOU CODE 8602 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017

17. Draw Connections to Real Life “When will I ever need this?” This question, too often heard in the classroom, indicates that a student is not engaged. If a student does not believe that what they’re learning is important, they won’t want to learn, so it’s important to demonstrate how the subject relates to them. If you’re teaching algebra, take some time to research how it is utilized practically for example, in engineering and share your findings with your students. Really amaze them by telling them that they may use it in their career. Showing them that a subject is used every day by “real” people gives it new importance. They may never be excited about algebra but if they see how it applies to them, they may be motivated to learn attentively.

FOR QUESTIONS # 4 TO 5 “CLICK HERE”

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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 http://aiouassignments.com/aiou-solved-assignment-1-code-8606-spring-2017-2/ http://aiouassignments.com/aiou-solved-assignment-1-code-8606-spring-2017-2/#comments Thu, 03 Aug 2017 11:22:37 +0000 http://aiouassignments.com/?p=340 Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 for the students of B.Ed. is now available. The aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 is completed by the experts. The code 8606 is citizenship education and community engagement. It is important to train the citizen of any country and develop the education system over …

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Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 for the students of B.Ed. is now available. The aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 is completed by the experts. The code 8606 is citizenship education and community engagement. It is important to train the citizen of any country and develop the education system over there, so the education will be improved. Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 totally related with these topics. And this assignment is really train the community.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 MAJOR ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE

Q.1: A) DEFINE THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE. EXPLAIN THE MAJOR ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE IN PAKISTANI CONTEXT.
Answer:
SOCIAL STRUCTURE, in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in a society interact and live together. Social structure is often treated together with the concept of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the organization of society. Although it is generally agreed that the term social structure refers to regularities in social life, its application is inconsistent. For example, the term is sometimes wrongly applied when other concepts such as custom, tradition, role, or norm would be more accurate.

Studies of social structure attempt to explain such matters as integration and trends in inequality. In the study of these phenomena, sociologists analyze organizations, social categories (such as age groups), or rates (such as of crime or birth). This approach, sometimes called formal sociology, does not refer directly to individual behavior or interpersonal interaction. Therefore, the study of social structure is not considered a behavioral science; at this level, the analysis is too abstract. It is a step removed from the consideration of concrete human behavior, even though the phenomena studied in social structure result from humans responding to each other and to their environments. Those who study social structure do, however, follow an empirical (observational) approach to research, methodology, and epistemology.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 FOR B.ED.

Social structure is sometimes defined simply as patterned social relations—those regular and repetitive aspects of the interactions between the members of a given social entity. Even on this descriptive level, the concept is highly abstract: it selects only certain elements from ongoing social activities. The larger the social entity considered, the more abstract the concept tends to be. For this reason, the social structure of a small group is generally more closely related to the daily activities of its individual members than is the social structure of a larger society. In the study of larger social groups, the problem of selection is acute: much depends on what is included as components of the social structure. Various theories offer different solutions to this problem of determining the primary characteristics of a social group.

Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 Continue

Before these different theoretical views can be discussed, however, some remarks must be made on the general aspects of the social structure of any society. Social life is structured along the dimensions of time and space. Specific social activities take place at specific times, and time is divided into periods that are connected with the rhythms of social life—the routines of the day, the month, and the year. Specific social activities are also organized at specific places; particular places, for instance, are designated for such activities as working, worshiping, eating, and sleeping. Territorial boundaries delineate these places and are defined by rules of property that determine the use and possession of scarce goods. Additionally, in any society there is a more or less regular division of labour. Yet another universal structural characteristic of human societies is the regulation of violence. All violence is a potentially disruptive force; at the same time, it is a means of coercion and coordination of activities. Human beings have formed political units, such as nations, within which the use of violence is strictly regulated and which, at the same time, are organized for the use of violence against outside groups. Furthermore, in any society there are arrangements within the structure for sexual reproduction and the care and education of the young. These arrangements take the form partly of kinship and marriage relations.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 SYMBOLIC COMMUNICATION

Finally, systems of symbolic communication, particularly language, structure the interactions between the members of any society
Major elements of social structure In Pakistan context.
(1) Values: At the top level are the societal values. These are the most general or abstract normative on conceptions of what the ideal society itself would be like.
SOCIAL
Image Courtesy: Individuals or groups are found to be emotionally committed to values. These values help to integrate personality or a system of interaction.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 GROUPS AND INSTITUTION

(2) GROUPS AND INSTITUTIONS:
Social structure can be viewed in terms of inter relationships of the component parts. Social structure includes social groups and institutions. These are called the major groups and institutions. Four of these — the family, economic institutions, political institutions and religious institutions center upon getting food and other items of wealth, procreation, worship and ruling. The community, the total organized life of a locality, is the most inclusive spontaneous grouping in the social structure. There are also the enduring phenomena of social classes, the ethnic or racial in group and the temporary grouping of crowd. These are more or less spontaneous configurations responsive to various interests that develop within the community.

Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 Organization

(3) Organizations:-
In the larger societies of modern time, human beings deliberately establish certain organizations for the pursuit of their specific ends or purposes. These organizations, very often called associations, are group manifestations of life and common interests. To quote Maclver and Page, “The associations constitute the most conspicuous part of the social structure and they gain in coherence, definite number and efficacy as the conditions of the society grow more complex”.

(4) Collectivities:-
There are specialized collectivities such as families, firms, schools, political parties etc. (Differentiated institutional patterns almost directly imply the existence of collective and role units whose activities have different kinds of functional significance).

(5) Roles:-
Finally, within all such collectivities one can distinguish types of roles. “Concretely these are the relevant performances of their individual occupants. Functionally, they are contributions to collective goal attainment”. Role occupants are expected to fulfil their obligations to other people (who are also role occupants). For example, in family the husband has obligations towards his wife. According to Nodal, the elements of social structure are roles.

(6) Norms:-
According to H.M. Johnson, sub-groups and roles are governed by social norms. Social norms are of two types: (i) obligatory or relational and (ii) permissive or regulative. Some norms specify positive obligations. But they are not commonly applied to all the roles and sub-groups For example, the positive obligations of a family are not the same as those of business firm. Some other norms specify the limit of permissible action. A role occupant of a sub-group in this case ‘must’ do certain things, ‘may’ do certain things and ‘must not do sill others. They are called regulative norms. They do not differentiate between roles and sub-groups. For example in our society, regardless of one’s role, one must not seek to influence others by threat of violence or by violence itself.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 GROUP DYNAMICS

Q.2: WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT GROUP DYNAMICS? DISCUSS THE IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES OF GROUP DYNAMICS.
Answer:-
Bruce W. Tuckman was one of the first psychologists to study and define group dynamics. In 1965. he recognized and defined the stages of group development, suggesting that groups must experience all five stages of development to reach maximum effectiveness. These stages can help you understand other basic principles that come into play with group dynamics.

Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8606 spring 2017 Group Development Stages

GROUP DEVELOPMENT STAGES:-
Tuchman first described four distinct stages but later added a fifth. Groups go through these stages subconsciously but the understanding of the stages can help groups reach the last stage effectively. The five stages are forming, storming, and norming, performing and adjourning. Although groups go through these stages in the order listed, a group can be at a later stage and go back to a previous stage before continuing forward. For example, a group might be working efficiently in the performing phase, but the arrival of a new member might force the group back into the storming stage.

COMMUNICATION:-
The communication network is another characteristic of group dynamics. An informal group uses communication processes that are simpler than those of the formal organization. In the informal group, the person who possesses the most amount of vital information frequently becomes the leader. Knowing about this group dynamic allows supervisors to provide this strategically placed leading individual with information that the group needs. Giving the group and its members relevant information encourages harmonious relationships between the supervisor and the informal group.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 ROTATIONAL LEADERSHIP

ROTATIONAL LEADERSHIP DYNAMIC:-
In informal group dynamics, rotational leadership is a specific attribute that is less common in formal organizations. An informal leader generally arises when a team member shows leadership qualities that others see as critical for a specific situation. Unlike a formally appointed group leader, the informal leader can only guide the group toward the completion of a project’s objectives. The informal leader does not possess any formal power, and the group can replace such a person if the need arises. This group dynamic phenomenon often happens subconsciously and constantly evolves during the lifetime of the group.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 GROUP NORMS
GROUP NORMS:-
Another characteristic of group dynamics is the presence of group norms and values. Defined norms, established during the norming phase, assist the group in clarifying thinking and determining which behavior patterns are acceptable. Norms also keep the group functioning as a system and measure the performance of group members.
Billson compares the classroom to a small group. She applies the principles of small group dynamics as they are studied and understood in sociology to what happens in the classroom. And she does so for this reason: “Deeper awareness of small group processes can enhance the teaching effectiveness of college faculty through improving their ability to raise student participation levels, increase individual and group motivation, stimulate enthusiasm, and facilitate communication in the classroom.” So what principles of small group dynamics might help us better understand what’s happening in our classrooms? Billson identifies and discusses 15—four are highlighted here.
Principle 1:-
Every participant in a group is responsible for the outcome of the group interaction. Billson acknowledges that the major responsibility does belong to the professor, but she maintains that students share a “significant responsibility” as well. (p. 144) She recommends discussing that responsibility with students and explores the possibility of letting students plan certain segments of the course or maybe offer input as to the weight of the course’s various assignments.

Principle 4:-
When people feel psychologically safe in a group, their participation levels will increase. This isn’t a particularly new or novel idea, but it’s something professors often take for granted. Most of us do feel safe in the classroom. We’ve been going to college classes for years. For students, classrooms don’t feel as comfortable. They can be made to feel safer when students are known by names, when their first attempts to contribute garner positive feedback, and when the professor avoids sarcasm and ridicule.

Principle 8:-
The leader of any group serves as a model for that group. “The way in which professors play their role, including how they present expectations of students, carry out responsibilities, and handle privileges implicit in the professorial role, has a profound effect on how students enact their role.”

Principle 13:-
A group will set its own norms of behavior and will expect conformity to them. These norms may extend to the professor. The same policies and procedures can be used and yet classes respond to them differently. In some classes, students argue at length about exam answers. In other classes, they want assignment deadlines extended. In many classes, a designated few become the only students who
Participate. Professors need to be aware of these norms and if they work against course goals, they should be discussed openly with students.
Although “small group” isn’t a label that feels like it fits classes with more than 100 students, even large classes exhibit many features typical of groups. Applying these principles can result in classroom climates where learning is a more likely outcome. I’d say Billson was way ahead of her time in identifying what helps to make classrooms learner-centered.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 CULTURE OF A SOCIETY
Q.3: A) HIGHLIGHT THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN PRESERVING AND PREVENTING THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY.
Answer:-
Culture gives a society or a nation its identity. Societies are indeed identifiable through their cultural expressions. Hence, every society makes efforts to preserve its particular cultural heritage by transmitting it from one generation to the next.

However, there is also the issue of the days functionality of certain aspects of traditional culture, that is, there may be aspects of traditional cultures which have proven to be no longer acceptable for some reason, e.g. they may be unhygienic or divisive, and therefore should no longer be passed on. Thus, there is a need to review and assess which aspects of culture should be preserved, renewed or discarded.
For example, in some parts of the world, female circumcision is practiced because it has been handed down as part of the cultural heritage. However, various groups now claim that the reasons given for such a practice are no longer tenable. Tribal marks have also been handed down from one generation to the next. Today tribal identification by means of facial markings has lost its validity, especially in the presence of moves to detribalize people and strive for national unity. In other parts of the world, girls and women, by virtue of their sex/gender and their roles in society, are simply not given basic educational opportunities. The traditional roles attributed to women as housekeepers and mothers keep them away from schools. Today this is considered a deprivation and an outright violation of the right to Education for All.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 CULTURE AND EDUCATION
Most likely there were agreements and disagreements in the assessments within your group discussion. This reflects another issue in the interplay between culture and education: who determines (and how) which aspects of traditional cultures have proven to be dysfunctional and should therefore no longer be transmitted? The challenge posed is to preserve what is of value in the indigenous culture and to renew what must be renewed, especially in the light of the profound influence of science and technology on society, changing even the old concepts of locality and culture. What is the role of education in this? In many parts of the world, education is regarded as a programme for social action. Schools, viewed as institutions for bringing such a programme into effect, are sometimes referred to as instruments for propagating culture. Thus culture, the arts and beliefs of a people, can be transmitted through planned activities in schools as well as through unplanned activities in the home setting. All children live within a cultural setting and can absorb aspects of this culture through both formal and informal education. In addition to those already mentioned, many other issues have been raised in relation to the culture-preservation function of schools. One such question is: can culture be preserved and transmitted from one generation to another within a closed system? In other words, how can you keep alive what is unique in your society without closing your doors to outside influences? It may be considered that some positive aspects of a foreign culture, once blended into your own, will help to propel development. Some danger I.es, however, in the possibility of an unhealthy dominance of such aspects of other cultures over your own indigenous culture. Mindful that more than fifty years have passed since every person’s right to education and to participate in the cultural life of the community was set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which also asserts that elementary education shall be compulsory and that technical and professional education shall be made generally available, Calling attention to the right to development established in the Declaration on the Right to Development, and reaffirmed at the World Conference on Human Rights held in Vienna from 14 to 25 June 1993,
Referring to the report entitled “Our Creative Diversity” by the World Commission on Culture and Development, the report “Learning: The Treasure Within” prepared for UNESCO by the International Commission cn Education for the Twenty-first Century, the World Education Forum’s Dakar Framework for Action’Education For All Meeting Our Collective Commitments”, and the conclusions of the Stockholm Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Deve opment, Aware of the many close links between education, culture, democracy and development. and stressing that ecucation and culture are the basis for both democratic participation and economic and social progress, Reaffirming its attachment to the promotion and consolidation of democracy, and acknowledging that democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms are interdependent and mutually reinforcing, and that democracy is based on the freely expressed will of the peoples to choose their own po economic, social and cultural systems and their full participation in all aspects of life, Noting that environmental issues affect both developed and developing nations and place the survival of humankind at risk.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 ECOLOGICAL
Aware of education’s potential as an engine for progress in all dimensions of development – economic, social, cultural and ecological, and also aware that stagnant education systems and undervalued cultural traditions are a threat to democracy, Stressing that the major obstacles encountered by women which are difficult to overcome by legislation are tradition and a mode of education that impose a distinction between men and women, deny women an education so condemning then to illiteracy, and maintain them in ignorance of their political rights; as well as economic obstacles, which deprive women of their right to education, Efforts to preserve resources on cultural heritage have gained new momentum throughout the world nowadays. Protecting cultural heritage is economical, as well as historical and also a cultural process. While cultural heritage preservation has not yet become firmly rooted in the Migerian consciousness as ‘football is, a great number of people and organizations see cultural resources as critical to the nation’s economic development through tourism. Cultural heritage is based on the aspects of our past that we cherish, want to keep and pass on to future generations and outside world. lowe✓er, the economic benefits of preservation are secondary to the intrinsic value of that heritage which is been preserved.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 AS OBSERVED BY SEKLER
AS RIGHTLY OBSERVED BY SEKLER (2001),
“tangible cultural heritage has the great advantage over its intangible counterpart, such that with proper care it will remain authentic ever centuries. As long as historic monuments remain without falsification and n-Is leading imitations, they will, even in a neglected state, create a sense of continuity that is an essential part o: cultural identity”

Libraries, archives, and museums hold disparate collections in a variety of media, presenting a vast body of knowledge accumulated over the institutions’ history, and the m session of these institutions is to mace their collections accessible to intended users. Then the question, what are the roles of library and info’ mation science professionals in the preservation of cultural heritage becomes relevant here? Lynch (2002) described several roles that Librarians may play in digital libraries as cigitizers of unique materials n special collections (a role also p ayed by museums and archives). Librarians are providers of such services as “virtual reference preservation and indexing, and as managers and facilitators of scholarly communications, through their participation in establishing institutional repositories’.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017
Book and Vondracek (2W6) highlighted several past involvements of libraries in the preservation of documents (reformatted or duplicated) to enhance access since medieval times when monks fastidiously transcribed documents by hard. They also indicated that libraries began massive newspaper microfilming and digitization projects to successfully reformat thousands of rare collections and crumbling newspapers as effective means of preserving print holdings. They further noted that cigitization can also be the first step in conducting advanced research on historical materials and ancient documents present a prime candidate ‘or digitization because of their historical imports, combined with century of exposure and degraded on. Dig participate. Professors need to be aware of these norms and if they work against course goals, they should be discussed openly with students. Although “small group” isn’t a labe that feels like it fits classes with more than 100 students, even large classes exhibit many features typical of groups. Applying these principles can result in classroom climates where learning is a more likely outcome. I’d say Billson was way ahead of her time in identifying what helps to make classrooms learner-centered. Q.3: a) Highlight the role of education in preserving and preventing the culture of a society. Answer: Culture gives a society or a nation its identity. Societies are indeed identifiable through their cultural expressions. Hence, every society makes efforts to preserve its particular cultural heritage by transmitting it from one generation to the next. However, there is also the issue of the days functionality of certain aspects of traditional culture, that is, there may be aspects of traditional cultures which have proven to be no longer acceptable for some reason, e.g. they may be unhygienic or divisive, and therefore should no longer be passed on. Thus, there is a need to review and assess which aspects of culture should be preserved, renewed or discarded. For example, in some parts of the world, female circumcision is practiced because it has been handed down as part of the cultural heritage. However, various groups now claim that the reasons given for such a practice are no longer tenable.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 TRIBAL INDENTIFICATION
Tribal marks have also been handed down from one generation to the next. Today tribal identification by means of facial markings has lost its validity, especially in the presence of moves to detribalize people and strive for national unity. In other parts of the world, girls and women, by virtue of their sex/gender and their roles in society, are simply not given basic educational opportunities. The traditional roles attributed to women as housekeepers and mothers keep them away from schools. Today this is considered a deprivation and an outright violation of the right to Education for All. Most likely there were agreements and disagreements in the assessments within your group discussion. This reflects another issue in the interplay between culture and education: who determines (and how) which aspects of traditional cultures have proven to be dysfunctional and should therefore no longer be transmitted? The challenge posed is to preserve what is of value in the indigenous culture and to renew what must be renewed, especially in the light of the profound influence of science and technology on society, changing even the old concepts of locality and culture. What is the role of education in this? In many parts of the world, education is regarded as a programme for social action. Schools, viewed as institutions for bringing such a programme into effect, are sometimes referred to as instruments for propagating culture.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 CULTURE, ARTS, AND BELIEFS

Thus culture, the arts and beliefs of a people, can be transmitted through planned activities in schools as well as through unplanned activities in the home setting. All children live within a cultural setting and can absorb aspects of this culture through both formal and informal education.
In addition to those already mentioned, many other issues have been raised in relation to the culture-preservation function of schools. One such question is: can culture be preserved and transmitted from one generation to another within a closed system? In other words, how can you keep alive what is unique in your society without closing your doors to outside influences? It may be considered that some positive aspects of a foreign culture, once blended into your own, will help to propel development. Some danger lies, however, in the possibility of an unhealthy dominance of such aspects of other cultures over your own indigenous culture.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 CULTURAL LIFE OF COMMUNITY.
Mindful that more than fifty years have passed since every person’s right to education and to participate in the cultural life of the community was set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which also asserts that elementary education shall be compulsory and that technical and professional education shall be made generally available, Calling attention to the right to development established in the Declaration on the Right to Development, and reaffirmed at the World Conference on Human Rights held in Vienna from 14 to 25 June 1993, also essential to offer continuing education opportunities in resources’ preservation for those whose qualifications need updating or those who wish to build on their existing knowledge. Feather (1996) has called attention to the proper handling of library materials by all of those involved as a sort of inexpensive measure by any library or archive to begin its programme of preservation, which can, at least, prevent damage to materials which would have been caused by simple ignorance. Similarly, Smith (1993) argued that proper shelving and storage are important factors in extending the life of all books. He also noted that oversize books – inordinately tall, wide, or thick – frequently have bindings that are weak in proportion to their size and weight. They cannot be stored safely on ordinary vertical shelves. Hence, they should be stored flat on broad, fixed shelves of roller shelves, with not more than three or four volumes resting on top of each other.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017 PHOTOCOPYING PROCESS

Writing on library book, photocopying processes, Burdick (1993) also noted that “certain styles of copy machines help to minimize damage to bound materials. According to him, V-shaped cradle copiers that allow a volume to be copied while lying face up are not yet widely available, so the best solution is to use a machine that has a copy surface that extends to one outer edge of the machine”. Also, Ogden (1993) wrote that traditionally, libraries and archives independently have undertaken activities to preserve their collections by providing proper housing, protection from mutilation and theft, library binding, and occasional repair and restoration.

FIND HERE:- AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8606 SPRING 2017

Harvey (1993) goes on to describe strategies for preservation, which include: “clearly deterring priorities for preservation, relating preservation actions to institutional objectives, preferring methods which treat materials economic in bulk (such as mass decalcification) over those which apply only to single items, implementing the practices of preventative preservation rather than reliance on “after the event” intervention by conservation, recognizing the important role which education and training plays, and accepting that librarians cannot have the running to conservators but must take their preservation further into their own hands”.

FOR QUESTIONS # 4 TO 5 “ PRESS HERE “

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B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 http://aiouassignments.com/b-ed-code-8601-solved-assignment-1-spring-2017/ http://aiouassignments.com/b-ed-code-8601-solved-assignment-1-spring-2017/#comments Wed, 02 Aug 2017 10:29:18 +0000 http://aiouassignments.com/?p=328 B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 for general method of teaching is made and uploaded. All the B.Ed. student in the first semester can get B.ED. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017. In this semester this is first aiou solved assignment 1 code 8601 spring 2017. Mostly B.Ed. students need the solved …

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B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 for general method of teaching is made and uploaded. All the B.Ed. student in the first semester can get B.ED. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017. In this semester this is first aiou solved assignment 1 code 8601 spring 2017. Mostly B.Ed. students need the solved assignment, so to help them in solving the assignment we are providing the B.Ed. code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017.

B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 GENERAL METHOD OF TEACHING

Q.1 A) DEFINE TEACHING AND ELABORATE OLD NEW ASPECTS OF TEACHING.
Answer:-
The act or profession of a person who teaches. The measure of efficiency in teaching besides the material presented, narrows down to the process used in the teaching system. If we consider the available methods for teaching today, the debate will definitely occur between the old schooling systems versus the new schooling system.
Being told what to do to get an A isn’t just an experience that my friends and I have had in our years in elementary school but it’s also the main characteristic of the so-called old schooling system. This teaching method emphasizes the theoretical part of learning and it is mostly considered as ‘copy-paste’ learning. This terminology means that the material explained in class is the teacher’s notes or a book, from the students it is expected to know that information word by word if they want to have a good grade.
Since the lessons are teacher oriented mostly, the students are the passive party in the classroom and that leads to less interaction between students in class and no critical thinking for issues being presented. Consequently this lack of discussion in class has a negative effect only on the student because it reduces the chances for feedback or context clarification while lecturing. Last but not least, teaching theory without putting it on life situations may cause students to lose interest in their studies since the system considers him/her just as a number in the class and not a valuable person who can contribute with valuable ideas for the community.
Newer ways of imparting education through smart boards and projectors can only be helpful if the preaching system is done away with. A certain amount of practical knowledge is imperative. Learning through movement and the senses is becoming easier to do as bulky, stationary technology has become more mobile. Also, we are seeing the beginnings of a trend in which technology is becoming practically invisible and more integrated into our everyday environments. Digital technology such as tablets can help teachers and students rediscover traditional ways of learning by using touch, movement, sound, and visually.
3D printers serve as a revolutionizing tool to aid many areas of education and provide teachers with new ways of getting their message across. Young students get bored with lots of text, making information visible helps but printing it in 3 dimensions truly captures the student’s interest, By using a 30 printer, any class will instantly be transformed in an interactive learning experience. Print parts of a skeleton to use for a biology class or use it for prototyping in technique classes.
Difficult concepts will not only be visible but also tangible. Anything normally drawn out on the black board can now be explained through models that students can touch and investigate from any angle. Hands-on learning through 3D models, especially for art and technique classes, it is great to use the prototyping capabilities to make students’ creative ideas and designs come to live.

B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING

b) Highlight the principles of effective teaching.
Answer:
Principle 1: Care about helping your kids to do the best that they can
Effective teachers are passionate about helping their students to learn. They form warm and caring relationships with their students. However, they also set high expectations, and they demand that their students meet them. This leads to a situation where the teacher and the students are working together towards a common goal — helping every child to learn as much as they can.
Principle 2: Understand but don’t excuse your students Effective teachers seek to understand their students, but so do most teachers. The difference is that effective teachers still expect each of their students to behave and to achieve well. Effective teachers use their understanding to adjust their approach to teaching, but they did not use it to excuse misbehavior, poor effort or a lack of real academic progress.

Principle 3: Be clear about what you want your students to learn: Effective teachers are clear about what they want their students to learn and they share this with their students. Everyone understands what success entails. Effective teachers also know where students are currently at in this area. They then work towards developing the understanding and skills their students need to demonstrate that they have mastered the material.

Principle 4: Disseminate surface knowledge and promote deep learning: Effective teachers want their students to be able to think critically and to develop a deep understanding of the material being taught in class. However, they recognize developing this deep understanding requires sharing a foundational set of knowledge and skills. Armed with this foundation, teachers can help students to develop a deep understanding of the topic at hand.

Principle 5: Gradually release responsibility for learning: Effective teachers do not ask their students to perform tasks that they have not shown their students how to do. Rather, they start by modelling what students need to do. They then ask their students to have a go themselves, while being available to help as needed. Only when students are ready, do they ask their students to perform the tasks on their own. Finally, they offer ongoing cumulative practice, spaced out over time, to help students retain what they have learned

Principle 6: Give your student’s feedback: Effective teachers give students dollops of feedback. This feedback tells students how they are going and gives them information about how they could improve. Without feedback, students are likely to continue holding misconceptions and making errors. Feedback allows students to adjust their understanding and efforts before it is too late.

Principle 7: Involve students in learning from each other: Effective teachers supplement teacher-led, individual learning, with activities that involve students in learning from each other. When done well, strategies such as cooperative learning, competition and peer tutoring can be quite powerful. Yet, these activities must be carefully structured and used in conjunction with more traditional teaching.

Principle 8: Manage your students’ behavior: Effective teachers know that students’ behavior can help or hinder how much students learn in the classroom. They implement strategies that nurture positive behavior and minimize misbehavior. They are consciously aware of what is going in the classroom, and they nip problems in the bud before quickly returning the focus to the lesson at hand. Finally, they follow up on more serious misbehavior and help students to change any entrenched bad habits.

Principle 9: Evaluate the impact you are having on your students: Effective teachers regularly assess student progress, and they then use this insight to evaluate the impact they are having on their students. If what they are doing is working, they continue to use or even make more use of a particular approach. If what they are doing is not having the desired impact (even for just one student), they reflect on and refine what they are doing until they are getting the results they want.

Principle 10: Continue learning ways that you can be of even more help to more students: Effective teachers love learning and are always seeking to improve their own practices. They seek out evidence-based insights, and they are happy to challenge their existing beliefs about teaching. However, they are also critical of mindless innovation, innovation for the sake of it, and innovation that adopts practices that are not supported by research. You can use these principles of effective teaching to reflect on your own practice, to discuss effective teaching with colleagues or evaluate particular programs/approaches you are considering.

B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

Q.2 A) WHY A TEACHER’S PERSONALITY TRAITS ARE IMPORTANT TO CREATE AND MAINTAIN A CLASS ROOM/LEARNING ENVIRONMENT?
Answer:-
Teacher Personality Traits and Classroom Management Personality: Personality refers to the uniqueness of a person in terms of his attributes, qualities, capabilities, weaknesses, emotionality, physical qualities etc. Mangal, (2014) puts it personality is all that a person is, it is the totality of one’s behavior towards oneself as well as others. It includes everything about the person, his physical, emotional, social. Mental and spiritual make-up. All port cited in Mangal (2014) defines personality as dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. Eysenck also quote in Mangal (2014) sees personality as the more or less stable and enduring organization of a person’s character, temperament, intellect, and physique, which determines his unique adjustment to the environment. The effectiveness of managing a classroom greatly depends on the personality of the teacher which determines the teacher’s level of organization, charisma and unique adjustment to classroom processes. Teachers may have the same professional qualities but they differ in their personality characteristics which makes their approach to classroom management also different. Thus the following can be considered as personality characteristics of the teacher that influence his managerial effectiveness in the classroom.
• Physical appearance (dressing) 4 Intelligence 4 Discipline
• Communication effectiveness/presentation
• Temperament
• Organization
• Teacher/pupil/student relationship
• Sensitively

i. Physical appearance of the teacher: It is often said you are addressed the way you dress. Dressing well is an importance personality trait which attracts respect and value for a teacher. If a teacher appears good neatly dressed and well kept. The students will have a positive view of the teacher and full of expectations. Their positive view of the teacher keeps the students naturally focused and expectant with that level of respect the class comes to order.
ii. Intelligence level of the teacher: Students naturally have great respect for intelligent teachers. An intelligent teacher is one who displays a strong grip of the subject matter, one who shows great mastery of content and has intelligent answers to student’s questions. He gives several concrete examples and clear illustrations in class, his presentation does not raise unnecessary controversies and arguments. So his class is always attentive and orderly.
iii. Discipline: Discipline is simply the quality of self-control in an individual. Social learning theories posit that children earn by observation and imitation children imitate the behavior of the teacher they observe. Thus the teacher has to be exemplary. Teacher can maintain discipline in class through the following ways (Egwu, 2013)
a. Treat students: With respect no matter the age of your students, treat them with respect. As you do that your students will treat you with respect as well.
b. Get to know the students: Show interest in your students by getting to know them. Make sure you know their names and bring them close to yourself.
c. Use positive rewards: Teacher should reinforce good behavior by giving rewards, the reward can be in form of praise, clapping, gifts etc.
d. Be fair and consistent: Apply discipline evenly across board, avoid any form of favoritism.
e. Don’t humiliate or demean student: Is you used to address a student’s misbehavior, don’t do so in a way that humiliates the student or openly disgracing the student in the class. Address the offence and still protect his dignity. When students are embarrassed before their peers they tend to rather develop negative behavior
f. Don’t get into arguments with students: Remain neutral with students. If a student is trying to make you argue with him, don’t rise to the bait. Instead maintain a firm yet clam stance. If the student continues to try arguing with you, say “we will discuss this after class”. This closes down the conflict momentarily. g. Make rules together and indicate consequences: Let the students be involved in making rules that govern the class. This will make students to keep the rules at will they will also tend to keep one another in check.

B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

(iv) Effective communication: Communication is the process of passing on information from a person to another through verbal and non-verbal approaches. The major personality qualities involved in this process are voice quality, gesticulations, maintaining focus, fluency and eloquence, confidence and comportment, simplicity, speed and sequence of speech. The voice of the teacher controls students’ attention. Teachers with good voice quality (loud, clear and audible) are more likely to have less attention problems than teachers with poor or low voice quality. Apart from the voice, self confidence, compartment, eloquence, simplicity in the choice of words maintaining ideological focus without derailing during presentations in the classroom are personality qualities which promote communication effectiveness, attract attention and maintain order in the classroom.
v. Teacher Temperament: For decades, scholars have debated about the diversity normally referred to as “super traits’ or “Temperament”. Three of these temperament dimensions are genetically based. (Grey, 1991).

B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 ROLE OF PRIMARY TEACHER

b) Enlist the role of a primary teacher.
Answer:
What does a Primary School Teacher do?
Primary School Teachers educate children between the ages of 5 and 12 under a prescribed curriculum to develop students’ literacy and numeracy skills and foster social, physical and emotional growth. Subject areas within their curriculum include mathematics, English, science, technology, humanities and social science, arts, health and physical education.

As a Primary School Teacher, you’ll use a variety of effective techniques and technologies to engage students with the learning process according to their age, level of ability and individual needs. You will also encourage the intellectual and emotional growth of children including reasoning and problem solving skills, creativity and self-expression.
Primary School Teachers work collaboratively with leadership, specialist and support staff including the school Principal, Special Education Teachers, Guidance Officers, Teacher Librarians and Teacher Aides. If required, Primary School Teachers may also interact with other professionals such as Social Welfare Officers or Disability Officers to assist students who have special needs.

B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 Daily Tasks

Daily tasks for a Primary School Teacher
Primary School Teachers perform a range of tasks on a daily basis, which may include:
• Preparing daily and long-term lesson plans according to curriculum guidelines.
• Teaching a full range of subject areas.
• Developing children’s interests, abilities and coordination using a variety of creative activities including art, sport and music.
• Maintaining productive working habits and discipline in the classroom.
• Supervising students throughout the day, both in the classroom and outside during breaks.
• Attending staff meetings and training and development sessions.
• Assessing and evaluating students’ educational progress and abilities.
• Setting and conducting testing.
• Discussing students’ progress with parents and guardians, administrators and other professionals as necessary.
• Organizing, attending and supervising school activities such as excursions, school concerts, camps and sporting events. Working hours of a Primary School Teacher
In addition to working regular school hours, Primary School Teachers may also be required to work extended hours in order to plan lessons, attend staff meetings or events, and mark students’ school work. A Primary School Teacher may carry out these tasks in the morning before the school day commences, after teaching hours in the afternoon or evening, on weekends, or a combination of these hours. Primary School Teachers are not required to work during school holiday periods, in additional to their regular annual leave.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER AND AN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATOR?
PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS are eligible to teach children between the ages of 5 and 12, or in Year 1 to Years 6 or 7, depending on the state’s school structure. Along with developing students’ literacy and numeracy skills, Primary School Teachers assist with building problem solving and social skills.

B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 Early Childhood Educators

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATORS (or Early Childhood Teachers) are qualified to develop and implement educational programs for children between the ages of 4 and 8 (or children in Kindergarten or Prep through to Year 3). Early Childhood Educators help young students to develop social skills, creativity and coordination, and an interest in learning. Both Primary School Teachers and Early Childhood Educators are required to hold a tertiary teaching qualification.

B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 GOALS

Q.3 WHY IS OUTLINING OF GOALS/ OBJECTIVES NECESSARY BEFORE PLANNING A LESSON?
Answer: A learning objective states specifically what a student should be able to do. Here are some examples of good learning objectives: Students will be able to:
• Identify different levels of data in new scenarios.
• Explain in context a confidence interval.
• Determine which probability distribution out of binomial, Poisson or normal is most appropriate to model in an unfamiliar situation.
• Compare two time series models of the same data and evaluate which is more appropriate in a given context.

B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 LEARNING OBJECTIVES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES NEED TO BE SPECIFIC AND MEASURABLE.
Here are some things that people might think are learning objectives, but are not:
• Students will understand the central limit theorem. (The term “understand” is not measurable)
• Students will learn about probability trees (“learn” is not measurable, and does not specify the level. Do students need to be able to interpret or create probability trees?)

THERE ARE VAST NUMBERS OF RESOURCES ON LEARNING OBJECTIVES ONLINE.
Here is one I liked, with Bloom’s taxonomy of levels of learning. These are higher and lower levels of learning objectives, ranging from being able to state principles, through to synthesis and evaluation.

B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 LEARNING OBJECTIVES

NOT JUST LEARNING OBJECTIVES
A course is more than the set of its learning objectives. The learning objectives specify the skills, but there are also attitudes and knowledge to be considered. The starting point for course design is the attitudes. What do we want the students to feel about the topics? What changes do we wish them to contemplate in their thinking? Then the skills and knowledge are specified, often starting at a quite general level, then working down to specifics.

B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 Students

For example, we might wish to teach about confidence intervals. We need to determine whether students need to be able to calculate them, interpret them, estimate or derive them. We need to decide which confidence intervals we are interested in — for means alone, or proportions and slopes as well? Sometimes I find there are concepts I wish to include in the learning objectives, but they don’t really work as objectives. These I put as “important concepts and principles”. I have put an example of learning objectives and concepts and principles at the end of this post.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES TELL STUDENTS WHAT IS IMPORTANT:-
Without learning objectives it is difficult for students to know what they are supposed to be learning. In a lecture, a teacher can talk extensively about a case, but unless she states explicitly, it can be difficult for the students to know where to direct their attention. Do they need to know the details of that specific case or what principles are they supposed to glean from the example? Or was it just a “war-story” to entertain the troops? Students can waste a great deal of time studying things that are not necessary, to the determent of their learning as a whole. The uncertainty also causes unnecessary anxiety.

B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT

LEARNING OBJECTIVES ENABLE GOOD ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENT
Each year as we wrote our assessments we would go through the learning objectives and make sure they were assessed. This way the assessment was fair and applied to the course. If we found it difficult to write a question to assess a learning object ye we would think again about the learning objective, and what It is we really want the students to be able to do. It made it easier to write fair, comprehensive assessments.

B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 Drives Learning

Learning objectives encourage reflection and good course design and development as instructors write and review the learning objectives in a course, they can identify the level of learning that is specified in each. At an entry-level course, it is acceptable to have a number of lower level learning objectives. However, there needs to be some serious thinking done if a post-graduate course is not mainly made up of higher level learning objectives. I have seen tests in stage 2 and 3 papers that tested mainly recall and common-sense. It was evident that the instructor had not thought clearly about the level of learning that: was expected.
Sometimes we find we are assessing things we have not specifically taught the students. The use of learning objectives, linked with assessment design, helps us to identify the background knowledge that we assume students have. One colleague was frustrated that the students did not seem able to apply the statistical results to a managerial context. However, nowhere had she specified that students would be required to do so, and nowhere had she actually taught students how to do this. She also assumed a level of understanding of business, That was probably not appropriate in undergraduate students

B.Ed. Code 8601 solved assignment 1 spring 2017

LIKE IT OR NOT, ASSESSMENT DRIVES LEARNING
I spoke recently to a math’s advisor who informed me that teachers should be teaching to the curriculum not to the assessments. I felt he was idealistic, and told him so. My experience is that university students will lean what is assessed, and nothing else. I don’t know at what age this begins, but I suspect National Testing, the bane of good education, has lowered the age considerably. How wonderful it would be if our students learned for the sheer joy of learning! Where there are assessments looming, I fear this is unlikely.

When we write exams we are also writing learning materials for future students. One of the most common ways to prepare for an assessment is to do exercises from previous assessments. So when we feel that students were not really coming to grips with a concept, we include questions in the assessment that can then be used by future students for review.

B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 UNNECESSARY STRESS

INFORMATION PROMOTES EQUITY AND REDUCES UNNECESSARY STRESS
The use of learning objectives can help reduce the “gaming” aspects that can proliferate in the absence of clear information. This is apparent at present in the world of Year 13 Statistics in New Zealand. The information regarding the external standards for 2013 is still sketchy (1 July 2013). The exams are written by external examiners and will take place in November of this year. However there is still only vague and sometimes incorrect information as to exactly what may or may not be included in the exams. Because of this, teachers are trying to detect, from what is or isn’t in the formula sheet and the (not totally correct) exemplars what might be in the finals, and what to include in the school practice exams. I suspect that some teachers or areas have more information than others. The way to make this fairer is to specify what is included in the material that may be included, as learning objectives. Let us hope that some clarity comes soon, for the sake of the teachers and the students.

Find Also:- AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017

YOUR LEARNING
So what were the learning objectives for this post? As a result of reading this post, readers will
• Reflect on their methods of course development and assessment with respect to using learning objectives.
• find further resources on the internet regarding learning objectives.
• Make comments on the good and bad aspects of this post! (oops — I didn’t teach that one)

B.ED. CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 QUESTION # 04 – 05

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