Bachelor – AIOU Assignments http://aiouassignments.com Mon, 09 Apr 2018 06:04:53 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.5 https://i1.wp.com/aiouassignments.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/android-icon-48x48.png?fit=32%2C32 Bachelor – AIOU Assignments http://aiouassignments.com 32 32 83397463 Windows 7 Activado Descargar Windows 7 gratis por (Activado) 32, 64 bits http://aiouassignments.com/windows-7-activado-descargar-windows-7-gratis-por/ Wed, 21 Mar 2018 15:22:16 +0000 http://aiouassignments.com/?p=1099 windows 7 activado Descargar Windows 7 gratis por (Activado) 32, 64 bits Windows 7 Windows 7 activado Chicos ya somos mucho que hemos decidido quedarnos con nuestro viejo pero seguro y confiable Windows 7 Activado, por las razones principales de incompatibilidad de programas con el nuevo Windows 10. En este post vamos a poder Descargar …

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windows 7 activado Descargar Windows 7 gratis por (Activado) 32, 64 bits Windows 7

Windows 7 activado Chicos ya somos mucho que hemos decidido quedarnos con nuestro viejo pero seguro y confiable Windows 7 Activado, por las razones principales de incompatibilidad de programas con el nuevo Windows 10. En este post vamos a poder Descargar windows 7 activado gratis por utorrent tanto en 32 bits como 64 bits.

Pantalla de la muerte de Windows 10 – otra razón por la que me quedo con Windows 7.

Actualización que incluye la de seguridad KB4041676, la cual ha provocado un tremendo fallo en computadoras en todo el mundo. Se trata de la temida pantalla azul de la muerte, que aparece y obliga a los usuarios a reiniciar sus equipos.

No es la primera vez que una actualización de Windows 10 ocasiona problemas, en abril también salió una peligrosa update que llegaba a bloquear el ordenador

Descargar windows 7 activado gratis por utorrent

Lo mejor de todo es que al Descargar windows 7 activado de este post, a la hora de instalarlo se dará cuenta que él mismo se activará como si fuera original, que dará automáticamente activado, (Descargar windows 7 gratis activado).

Además les dejo un vídeo tutorial de como activar windows 7 ultimate gratis tanto en 32 bits o la 64bits.

Siempre utilizo uTorrent – el mejor programa para descargar windows 7 activado por utorrent 32 bits o descargar windows 7 por utorrent 64 bits, porque son sistemas operativo muy grande.

Descargar Windows 7 gratis por (Activado) 32, 64 bits

Requerimientos del Sistema para Windows 7 SP1

  • Debemos contar con un procesador mínimo de 1 GHz
  • Memoria RAM: 1 Giga como Mínimo
  • Espacio disponible en el Disco: 16 Gigas como Mínimo
  • Tarje de Vídeo Compatible con gráficos Directx 9 con 128 Mb de Memoria
  • Una unidad DVD-R/W (Opcional)
  • Una conexión a Internet para poder hacer la descarga de las actualizaciones

 

Características destacadas de este windows 7 activado gratis:

  • Se integro las últimas actualizaciones en Windows de abril del 2018.
  • Integrado Internet Explorer 11
  • Auto-Activación OEM
  • No tendrán problemas de des-activación o software No Original
  • Se puede usar sin problemas Windows Update
  • (Descargar actualizaciones Oficiales)
  • Multi-OEM Branding
  • Incluye Mass Storage (SATA) drivers 12.12.1
  • Incluye Español Nativo

Descargar Windows 7 gratis por (Activado) 32, 64 bits Windows 7 Updated

Datos Técnicos

  • Idioma: Español
  • Tamaño 32 y 64 Bits: 2.79 Gigas | 3.84 Gigas
  • Formato: ISO – DVD 5.

Opción 1: Descargarlo desde la web oficial

 

 

OPCIÓN 2 … REPARADO LOS LINKS

Descargar versión 32bits

Descargar versión 64 bits

PARA DESCARGAR… recuerden pasar las 2 publicidad, inmediatamente pasen la segunda publicidad el torrent empezará a descargarse automáticamente. Ejemplo: Esperan los 5 segundos y luego hacen click en : SALTAR PUBLICIDAD, la primera y la segunda.

Descargar Windows 7 gratis por (Activado) 32, 64 bits 2018

También pueden descargar windows 7 activado

 

Para estar seguro de que le funcione también les voy a dejar como descargar windows 7 activador gratis español, o descargar windows 7 loader activador gratis. Programa para activar windows 7 y otro sistemas operativos.

Descargar Windows loader.

 

Si te sirvió compártelo por favor. Descargar Windows 7 gratis por utorrent.

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COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 http://aiouassignments.com/computer-aiou-solved-assignment-2-code-1431/ Tue, 02 Jan 2018 07:35:42 +0000 http://aiouassignments.com/?p=1042 Computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 is ready for the posting so you don’t wait more and start to write the computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 for the semester autumn 2017. All students who enrolled in autumn semester need this computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 so find here this assignment. …

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Computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 is ready for the posting so you don’t wait more and start to write the computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 for the semester autumn 2017. All students who enrolled in autumn semester need this computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 so find here this assignment. Our team of expert include all the data that is necessary for this computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431. You can also find this computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 on the google as well like on the social media.

COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Question No.5:-
WRITE A NOTE (IN YOUR OWN WORDS) ON THE FOLLOWING:
> COMPUTER LANGUAGES
> DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE

Answer:-
> COMPUTER LANGUAGES
Around the world language is a source of communication among human beings. Similarly, in order to communicate with computer user also needs to have a language that should be understandable by the computers. For the purpose different languages are developed for performing different types of work on the computer.
Mainly there are two types of computer languages.

COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 BACHELOR STUDENTS

Low Level Computer Languages
These are machine codes or close to it. Computer cannot understand instruction given in high level languages or in English It can only understand and execute instructions given in the form of machine languages i.e. the binary number 0 and 1. There are two types of low level computer language.
Machine Language
The lowest and most elementary language and was the first type of programming language to be developed. Mache language is basically the only language which computer can understand. In fact, a manufacturer designs a computer to obey just one language, its machine code, which is represented inside the computer by a string of binary digits (bits) 0 and 1. The symbol 0 stand for the absence of an electric pulse and 1 for the presence of an electric pulse. Since a computer is capable of recognizing electric signals, therefore, it understands machine language.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
The set of binary codes which can be recognize by the computer is known as the machine code instruction set. A machine language instruction consists of an operation code one or more operands. The operation code specifies that operation that is to be performed e.g. read, record etc. the operands identify the quantities to be operated on e.g. the numbers to be added or the locations where data are stored. But, it is almost impossible to write programs directly in machine code. For this reason, programs are normally written in assembly or high level languages and then are translated in the machine language by different translators.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
ADVANTAGES
• It makes fast and efficient use of the computer • It requires no translator to translate the code i.e. directly understood by the computer.
DISADVANTAGES
• All operation codes have to be remembered • All memory addresses have to be remembered • It is hard to amend or find errors in a program written in the machine language
These languages are machine dependent i.e. a particular machine language can be used on only one type of computer.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGES
It was developed to overcome some of the many inconveniences of machine language. This is another low level but a very important language in which operation codes and operands are given in the form of alphanumeric symbols instead of 0’s and l’s. These alphanumeric symbols will be known as mnemonic codes and can have maximum up to 5 letter combinations e.g. ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, START LABEL etc. because of this feature it is also known as “Symbolic Programming Language”. This language is very difficult and needs a lot of practice to master it because very small English support is given. This symbolic language helps in compiler orientations. The instructions of the assembly language will also be converted to machine codes by language translator to be executed by the computer

COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431

ADVANTAGES
• It is easier to understand and use as compared to machine language • It is easy to locate and correct errors • It is modified easily

DISADVANTAGES
• Like machine language it is also machine dependent • since it is machine dependent, there programmer should have the knowledge of the hardware also

COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
➢ DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE
Software development is a process by which standalone or individual software is created using a specific programming language. It involves writing a series of interrelated programming code, which provides the functionality of the developed software.
Software development may also be called application development and software design
Software development is an iterative logical process that aims to create a computer coded or programmed software to address a unique business or personal objective, goal or process. Software development is generally a planned initiative that consists of various steps or stages that result in the creation of operational software.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
Software development is primarily achieved through computer programming, which is carried out by a software programmer and includes processes such as initial research, data flow design, process flow design, flow charts, technical documentation, software testing, debugging and other software architecture techniques. This is known as the software development life cycle (SDLC) A software development process or life cycle is a structure imposed on the development of a software product. There are several models for such processes, each describing approaches to a variety of tasks or activities that take place during the process.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
PROCESSES
More and more software development organizations implement process methodologies.
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is one of the leading models. Independent assessments can be used to grade organizations on how well they create software according to how they define and execute their processes.
There are dozens of others, with other popular ones being ISO 9000, ISO 15504, and Six Sigma. Process Activities/Steps Software Engineering processes are composed of many activities, notably the following:
REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
Extracting the requirements of a desired software product is the first task in creating it. While customers probably believe they know what the software is to do, it may require skill and experience in software engineering to recognize incomplete, ambiguous or contradictory requirements.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
SPECIFICATION
Specification is the task of precisely describing the software to be written, in a mathematically rigorous way. In practice, most successful specifications are written to understand and fine-tune applications that were already well-developed, although safety-critical software systems are often carefully specified prior to application development. Specifications are most important for external interfaces that must remain stable.
Software architecture
The architecture of a software system refers to an abstract representation of that system. Architecture is concerned with making sure the software system will meet the requirements of the product, as well as ensuring that future requirements can be addressed.
Implementation
Reducing a design to code may be the most obvious part of the software engineering job, but it is not necessarily the largest portion.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
Testing
Testing of parts of software, especially where code by two different engineers must work together, falls to the software engineer. Documentation An important task is documenting the internal design of software for the purpose of future maintenance and enhancement.
Training and Support
A large percentage of software projects fail because the developers fail to realize that it doesn’t matter how much time and planning a development team puts into creating software if nobody in an organization ends up using it. People are occasionally resistant to change and avoid venturing into an unfamiliar area, so as a part of the deployment phase, its very important to have training classes for the most enthusiastic software users (build excitement and confidence), shifting the training towards the neutral users intermixed with the avid supporters, and finally incorporate the rest of the organization into adopting the new software. Users will have lots of questions and software problems which leads to the next phase of software.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
Maintenance
Maintaining and enhancing software to cope with newly discovered problems or new requirements can take far more time than the initial development of the software. Not only may it be necessary to add code that does not fit the original design but just determining how software works at some point after it is completed may require significant effort by a software engineer. About 60% of all software engineering work is maintenance, but this statistic can be misleading. A small part of that is fixing bugs. Most maintenance is extending systems to do new things, which in many ways can be considered new work.

CLICK HERE FOR QUESTION # 01 – 02
CLICK HERE FOR QUESTION # 03 – 04

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AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017 http://aiouassignments.com/aiou-code-1431-computer-solved-assignment-2-autumn-2017/ Tue, 02 Jan 2018 07:29:39 +0000 http://aiouassignments.com/?p=1039 Aiou code 1431 computer solved assignment 2 autumn 2017 is being uploading and we hope you will share with your friends. Aiou code 1431 computer solved assignment 2 autumn 2017 is full of information regarding the computer technology. So to know more about this you must read aiou code 1431 computer solved assignment 2 autumn …

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AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017 FOR BACHELOR

QUESTION NO.3:-
A) COMPARE FEATURE OF WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM ON YOUR COMPUTER WITH OTHER OPERATING SYSTEM. B) BRIEFLY EXPLAIN THE TERMS: ASSEMBLER, COMPILER, LINKER AND INTERPRETER.
Answer:-
An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer’s processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and others use the term assembly language.
In the earliest computers, programmers actually wrote programs in machine code, but assembler languages or instruction sets were soon developed to speed up programming. Today, assembler programming is used only where very efficient control over processor operations is needed. It requires knowledge of a particular computer’s instruction set, however. Historically, most programs have been written in “higher-level” languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, and C. These languages are easier to learn and faster to write programs with than assembler language. The program that processes the source code written in these languages is called a compiler. Like the assembler, a compiler takes higher-level language statements and reduces them to machine code.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017 B.A LEVEL

COMPILER:-
A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program.
The name “compiler” is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly or machine code). If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is known as a cross-compiler. A program that translates from a low level language to a higher level one is a decompiler. A program that translates between high-level languages is usually called a language translator, source to source translator, or language converter. A language rewriter is usually a program that translates the form of expressions without a change of language.
A compiler is likely to perform many or all of the following operations: lexical analysis, preprocessing, parsing, semantic analysis (Syntax-directed translation), code generation, and code optimization.
Program faults caused by incorrect compiler behavior can be very difficult to track down and work around; therefore, compiler implementer invest significant effort to ensure compiler correctness.
The term compiler-compiler is sometimes used to refer to a parser generator, a tool often used to help create the lexer and parser.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

LINKER:-
In computer science, a linker or link editor is a computer program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single executable program.
A simpler version that wrote its output directly to memory was called the loader, though loading is typically considered a separate process
Computer programs typically comprise several parts or modules; these parts/modules need not all be contained within a single object file, and in such case refer to each other by means of symbols. Typically, an object file can contain three kinds of symbols:
• defined symbols, which allow it to be called by other modules,
• undefined symbols, which call the other modules where these symbols are defined, and
• local symbols, used internally within the object file to facilitate relocation.
For most compilers, each object file is the result of compiling one input source code file. When a program comprises multiple object files, the linker combines these files into a unified executable program, resolving the symbols as it goes along.
Linkers can take objects from a collection called a library. Some linkers do not include the whole library in the output; they only include its symbols that are referenced from other object files or libraries. Libraries exist for diverse purposes, and one or more system libraries are usually linked in by default.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

Interpreter:-
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without previously compiling them into a machine language program. An interpreter generally uses one of the following strategies for program execution:
• parse the source code and perform its behavior directly
• translate source code into some efficient representation and immediately execute this
• explicitly execute stored precompiled code made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

Early versions of the Lisp programming language and Dartmouth BASIC would be examples of the first type. Perl, Python, MATLAB, and Ruby are examples of the second, while UCSD Pascal is an example of the third type. Source programs are compiled ahead of time and stored as machine independent code, which is then linked at run-time and executed by an interpreter and/or compiler (for PT systems). Some systems, such as Smalltalk, contemporary versions of BASIC, Java and others may also combine two and three.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

QUESTION NO.4:-
A) EXPLAIN THE BASIC CONCEPT OF MULTIMEDIA WITH THE HELP OF PROPER EXAMPLES. B) IDENTIFY TEN DIFFERENT EXAMPLES OF MULTIMEDIA AND ALSO DESCRIBE FIVE OF THEM IN DETAIL.
Answer:-
A) CONCEPT OF MULTIMEDIA:-
Multimedia refers to content that uses a combination of different content forms. This contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, or interactivity content forms.
Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed, or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term “rich media” is synonymous for multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories. Linear active content progresses often without any navigational control for the viewer such as a cinema presentation. Non-linear uses interactivity to control progress as with a video game or self-paced computer based training. Hypermedia is an example of non-linear content.
Multimedia presentations can be live or recorded. A recorded presentation may allow interactivity via a navigation system. A live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via an interaction with the presenter or performer.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTIMEDIA
Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, projected, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a live or recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be either analog or digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia may be downloaded or streamed. Streaming multimedia may be live or on-demand.
Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users’ experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or it entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience
AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is increasingly becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images (pictures) and title (text) user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficient, events, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia “experience” to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may also enhance the multimedia experience.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

B):- EXAMPLES OF MULTIMEDIA:-
Advances in technology including increased disk storage capacity, greater bandwidth capacities, improved resolution of capture devices and the increasing processing power of CPUs have influenced the development of multimedia systems. Increased disk storage capacity as well as advanced codecs for compressing data have enabled the creation of high quality interactive multimedia products that can be stored with ease. The speed and capacity of Internet connections have allowed large organizations, for example, to use online multimedia tutorials for computer based training (CBT). Home users interact with a multimedia websites for education purposes but more and more people now regard the net as a source of multimedia leisure and entertainment – online games, for example. Even traditional information providers such as newspapers and magazines are now creating Web-specific multimedia content. The increased use of DVDs over the past few years has brought about a significant change in the way we look at multimedia. Not only do we see a video as it was meant to be, but we can also interact with DVDs and have more control of the content that is displayed. The ever increasing speed and power of CPUs has had a tremendous influence on the ability of computers to create and display multimedia. High quality musical and video programs can be easily handled by modern CPUs, with the added benefit of being able to jump to any point in a program instantaneously.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017

EDUCATION AND TRAINING
In an educational multimedia system, the participants are the students and the teachers. The use of multimedia in this context is to inform and educate. Two major requirements of educational multimedia packages are good navigational options and a sufficient breadth and depth of information. The keyboard (for keyword searches) and the mouse (with hypermedia links) are usually used for navigation. The system will most probable to have all or most of the data types (text, hypertext, numbers, audio, images, animations and video) along with different hardware and software devices. Text is the most common data type.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
LEISURE AND ENTERTAINMENT
The participants in this type of system will be ranging from a variety of people from all ages. Often, their knowledge and skill about information technology are relatively low. The most common form of leisure and entertainment multimedia is the interactive computer game. The games are typically stored on CD-ROM (and increasingly on DVD) due to the amount of data and have. The average gamer (player) is only keen in audio, hypermedia, video and animated data types. User interaction with the system will most likely be through a mouse, trackball, or joystick. The keyboard is rarely used. In multimedia design for leisure and entertainment, it is important to note that it includes features such as fast action and allows the ability of the user to explore and discovery. A wide range of multimedia technology (high resolution VDU, audio speakers, CD/DVD drive, etc.) is likely to be present. The Internet are now widely used as a source to locate support devices and software for their system or leisure activities. These can be sharing MP3 files, downloading embroidery patterns, etc. These activities, however, have generated controversy over copyright issues.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
INFORMATION PROVISION
This type of multimedia is usually aimed at quickly providing very basic information. The participants for this system are similar to leisure and entertainment systems. Their information technology skills are frequently low as well as in leisure and entertainment. The users in this system only have an objective of locating and displaying information for a specified topic. Examples would include information kiosks in tourist centers, interactive directories in retail stores and shopping centers, and catalogue systems in libraries. The navigation options will often be simple with little depth. With an information kiosk, the interactive devices will usually be touch-sensitive screens or a trackball built into the system case. The publicity in the context of this system means that the use of keyboard or mouse is unlikely, due to no supervision. Because they are likely to be in the noisy environment of a shopping Centre or near a busy street, audio may not be part of the presentation.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
SIMULATIONS AND VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)
Simulation and VR systems are designed to duplicate real situations. These systems are used among the most sophisticated and expensive of computer-based systems. The purpose of a simulation is usually to create a situation with sufficient authenticity and realism that user can gain valuable training and experience from using the system. VR systems conducts this as a more developed simulation where the users are convinced that they are part of a real situation. The users are often specialists (ignoring entertainment-based systems) using the technology to further their knowledge and/or training. For example, the inside of a flight simulator will resemble a real aircraft cockpit and not a computer terminal. VR systems can be used to design new drugs and chemical products. In simulating the movement of atoms and molecules, motion ur position sensitive gloves are used. A 3D video headset allows researchers to see these simulated reactions and chemical structures. The making of these systems are expensive because of the degree of realism they require. A flight simulator for a modern commercial passenger jet will cost millions of dollars.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
CHANGES CAUSED BY TECHNOLOGY
AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
WORLD WIDE WEB
The World Wide Web has entered, adapted, advanced so quickly in the society. It was the first widely available hypertext system that could be used by people with totally different computer systems. The original standard (HTML 1) allowed only text, numbers and hypertext. Later standards (HTML 2 and above) incorporated graphics, then audio, and video. Many claim that the Internet would stay unknown if the Web was not introduced. As a direct result, terms such as ‘e-commerce’, ‘e-mail’, ‘Internet’ and ‘search engine’ became a part of the colloquial language. Almost everyone today now knows about the Web, even though there are still some who don’t understand it. A web address is now an important item on all advertising, business cards and letterheads. The increasing popularity of the Web and the Internet have made way for developments of new technologies such as faster modems (56 kbps) modems, ISDN and ADSL links for delivering data between computer systems.
AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
CD-ROM SPEED
The original CD-ROM standard was single speed and was designed to match the speed of audio CDs at 150 kbps. While this was (and still is) ideal for high quality music, single speed CD-ROMs were generally too slow for multimedia applications involving video or large animations (such as games). The original video storage standard, MPEG, was designed to allow digitized videos to be played directly from single speed CD-R0Ms but the quality of the video images had to be reduced. Most CD-ROMs were used to install a multimedia application such as a game onto a hard disk drive. With faster CD-ROM drive speeds, better quality video is possible, we now have high quality movies on CD-ROM systems, increasing the CD-ROM speed is not a solution to all multimedia problems.
AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2017
DVD:-
Originally, DVD stood for “Digital Video Disc” but it has been changed to “Digital Versatile Disc” as it better describes the capabilities of this storage device. DVD used to be commonly used for movies or videos. VHS or videocassettes were replaced by DVDs. The enormous storage capacity of a DVD means that it can store an entire movie, with extra scene and other materials added, and give viewers a choice of sound tracks in several different languages. Nonetheless, a DVD is capable in displaying more than just movies. DVD technologies can be used as encyclopedias, interactive games, complete training systems, complex simulations, etc. Current DVD technology allows up to 17 gigabytes of data to be stored in a single disc, whereas, CD-ROMs are ‘limited to only 650 megabytes.

CLICK HERE FOR QUESTION # 01 – 02
CLICK HERE FOR QUESTION # 05

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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017 http://aiouassignments.com/aiou-solved-assignment-2-code-1431-autumn-2017/ Tue, 02 Jan 2018 07:20:40 +0000 http://aiouassignments.com/?p=1036 Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 for the subject information and communication technology. This aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 contains mostly information about the computer and computer devices. Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 is completed and solved by the computer professionals. Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 …

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Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 for the subject information and communication technology. This aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 contains mostly information about the computer and computer devices. Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 is completed and solved by the computer professionals. Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 contains five questions and our professors team solved all the questions very carefully. Aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 autumn 2017 is now being uploading for bachelor students.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY.

QUESTION NO. 1:-
A) WHAT IS MEANT BY COMPUTER SOFTWARE? EXPLAIN IT IN DETAIL WITH THE HELP OF PROPER EXAMPLES
B) DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE.

ANSWER:-

COMPUTER SOFTWARE:-
Software is a generic term for organized collections of computer data and instructions, often broken into two major categories: system software that provides the basic non-task-specific functions of the computer, and application software which is used by users to accomplish specific tasks.

System software is responsible for controlling, integrating, and managing the individual hardware components of a computer system so that other software and the users of the system see it as a functional unit without having to be concerned with the low-level details such as transferring data from memory to disk, or rendering text onto a display. Generally, system software consists of an operating system and some fundamental utilities such as disk formatters, file managers, display managers, text editors, user authentication (login) and management tools, and networking and device control software.
Application software, on the other hand, is used to accomplish specific tasks other than just running the computer system. Application software may consist of a single program, such as an image viewer; a small collection of programs (often called a software package) that work closely together to accomplish a task, such as a spreadsheet or text processing system; a larger collection (often called a software suite) of related but independent programs and packages that have a common user interface or shared data format, such as Microsoft Office, which consists of closely integrated word processor, spreadsheet, database, etc.; or a software system, such as a database management system, which is a collection of fundamental programs that may provide some service to a variety of other independent applications.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017 COMPUTER SCIENCE.

Software is created with programming languages and related utilities, which may come in several of the above forms: single programs like script interpreters, packages containing a compiler, linker, and other tools; and large suites (often called Integrated Development Environments) that include editors, debuggers, and other tools for multiple languages.
Computer Software is a computer tool that will help computer users interact with the machine or the hardware in a computer. Without computer software’s, you will not be able to make the computer run and thus working on computers may not be as easy as it is today. There are different types of computer software and the differences lie in the usage and action they do inside the computer. To help you understand the different kinds of computer software, this article will help you by giving you the examples of computer software in each type of computer software. You may think that you do not need them but then you have to know what to buy when you need a certain software. The three types of computer software’s are systems software, for more details visit to www.viral-toolbar-builder.com programming software and applications software. Read on to know the differences. Systems Software Systems software assists you in communicating with the hardware and the computer system. Systems software is a software that is part of the computer when you purchase it.

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Example of the systems software is the operating system which helps you open the computer and interact with it. Another example is the device drivers or the software’s that sends the document to the printer or the system that helps you use the memory of the computer. Another is the windows system; for more details visit to www.text2speech-converter.com they are already in the computer when you purchase one. This helps you power up the computer. Programming software Programming software is a software used by computer engineers and computer technicians. This software helps them to write computer programs and software’s using programming languages. Users do not use programming software but because there will be no working computers without programming software’s, users may not know programming software but they need it. Programming software’s ensuring that the machine or the computer will work the way you need it.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Application software this is the software that you use. Example of application software’s includes Microsoft office applications, business software’s, accounting software’s, medical software, educational software’s and computer gaming software’s. Some of these software’s are available in the computer when you buy it, but others are optional. If the user deems it necessary to use other application software’s, you can do so by purchasing such application software and installing it in the computer. Understanding computer software’s is necessary if you would like to make your computer work advantageously for you. While you may not need to know a lot about systems software or programming software, knowing what it does helps you understand how computers work. By this understanding, you will know what to do when a problem in your computer comes out.
C) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE:-
System software and application software are computer programs. The system software is also installed during the installation of the operating system. However, the application software utilizes the capabilities of the computer on which it is installed.
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
The programs and the file that comprises the operating system are called system software. These files include configuration files, system preferences, system services, libraries of functions and the drivers for the hardware installed on the computer. The computer programs in system software include compilers, system utilities, assemblers, debuggers and file management tools.
Once you install the operating system, the system software is also installed. Program such “Software update” or “Windows update” can be used to update the system software. However, the end user does not run the system software. For example, while using the web browser, you don’t need to use the assembler program.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

System software is also called low-level software as it runs at most basic level of the computer. It just creates a graphical user interface thorough which the user can interact with hardware with the help of operating system. System software just runs at the back so you don’t need to bother about it.
The system software provides an environment to run application software and it controls the computer as well as the applications installed on the machine.
APPLICATION SOFTWARE
The subclass of a computer program which utilizes the capabilities of computer is called application software. Application here means the application software and the implementation. The example of application software programs includes media players, spreadsheets and word processors. When multiple applications are packaged together then it is called application suite.
There is a common user interface in each application suite which makes it easier for the user to learn different applications. In some cases, such as Microsoft Office, the various application programs have the ability to interact with each other. This facility is very handy for the user. For example, a user can embed the spreadsheet in a word processor using the application software. Application software cannot run without the presence of system software.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE
• System software gets installed when the operating system is installed on the computer while application software is installed according to the requirements of the user.
• System software includes programs such as compilers, debuggers, drivers, assemblers while application software includes media players, word processors, and spreadsheet programs.
• Generally, users do not interact with system software as it works in the background whereas users interact with application software while doing different activities.
• A computer may not require more than one type of system software while there may be a number of application software programs installed on the computer at the same time.
• System software can run independently of the application software while application software cannot run without the presence of the system software.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Question No.2:-
WHAT IS MEANT BY OPERATING SYSTEM? DEFINE FUNCTION OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM IN DETAIL WITH THE HELP OF DIFFERENT EXAMPLES.
Answer:-
OPERATING SYSTEM:-
An operating system (OS) is software that manages hardware sources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.
Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an ‘intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be ‘interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to super-computers and web servers.
Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, OS X, ONX, Microsoft Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS, all these except Windows, Windows phone and z/OS, share roots in UNIX.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Examples of Operating Systems:-
UNIX and UNIX-like operating systems.
Evolution of UNIX systems
UNIX was originally written in assembly language. Ken Thompson wrote B, mainly based on BCPL, based on his experience in the MULTICS project. B was replaced by C, and UNIX, rewritten in C, developed into a large, complex family of inter-related operating systems which have been influential in every modern operating system (see History).
The UNIX-like family is a diverse group of operating systems, with several major sub-categories including System V, BSD, and Linux. The name “UNIX” is a trademark of The Open Group which licenses it for use with any operating system that has been shown to conform to their definitions. “UNIX-like” is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems which resemble the original UNIX.
Unix-like systems run on a wide variety of computer architectures. They are used heavily for servers in business, as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments. Free UNIX variants, such as Linux and BSD, are popular in these areas.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Four operating systems are certified by The Open Group (holder of the Unix trademark) as Unix. HP’s HP-UX and IBM’s AIX are both descendants of the original System V Unix and are designed to run only on their respective vendor’s hardware. In contrast, Sun Micro systems’s Solaris Operating System can run on multiple types of hardware, including x86 and Spar servers, and PCs. Apple’s OS X, a replacement for Apple’s earlier (non-Unix) Mac OS, is a hybrid kernel-based BSD variant derived from Next STEP, Mach, and FreeBSD.
UNIX inter operability was sought by establishing the POSIX standard. The POSIX standard can be applied to any operating system, although it was originally created for various UNIX variants.
BSD and its descendants
The first server for the World Wide Web ran on Next STEP, based on BSD.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

A subgroup of the UNIX family is the Berkeley Software Distribution family, which includes FreeBSD, Net BSD, and Open BSD. These operating systems are most commonly found on web servers, although they can also function as a personal computer OS. The Internet owes much of its existence to BSD, as many of the protocols now commonly used by computers to connect, send and receive data over a network were widely implemented and refined in BSD. The World Wide Web was also first demonstrated on a number of computers running an OS based on BSD called Next Step.
BSD has its roots in UNIX. In 1974, University of California, Berkeley installed its first UNIX system. Over time, students and staff in the computer science department there began adding new programs to make things easier, such as text editors. When Berkeley received new VAX computers in 1978 with UNIX installed, the school’s undergraduates modified UNIX even more in order to take advantage of the computer’s hardware possibilities. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defense took interest, and decided to fund the project. Many schools, corporations, and government organizations took notice and started to use Berkeley’s version of UNIX instead of the official one distributed by AT&T.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Steve Jobs, upon leaving Apple Inc. in 1985, formed NeXT Inc., a company that manufactured high-end computers running on a variation of BSD called Next STEP. One of these computers was used by Tim Berners-Lee as the first web server to create the World Wide Web.
Developers like Keith Bostic encouraged the project to replace any non-free code that originated with Bell Labs. Once this was done, however, AT&T sued. Eventually, after two years of legal disputes, the BSD project came out ahead and spawned a number of free derivatives, such as FreeBSD and NetBSD.
OS X
The standard user interface of OS X
OS X (formerly “Mac OS X”) is a line of open core graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers. OS X is the successor to the original Mac OS, which had been Apple’s primary operating system since 1984. Unlike its predecessor, OS X is a UNIX operating system built on technology that had been developed at NeXT through the second half of the 1980s and up until Apple purchased the company in early 1997. The operating system was first released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0, with a desktop-oriented version (Mac OS X v10.0 “Cheetah”) following in March 2001. Since then, six more distinct “client” and “server” editions of OS X have been released, until the two were merged in OS X 10.7 “Lion”. The most recent version is OS X 10.9 “Mavericks”, which was announced on June 10, 2013, and released on October 22, 2013. Releases of OS X v10.0 through v10.8 are named after big cats. Starting with v10.9, “Mavericks”, OS X versions are named after inspirational places in California.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Prior to its merging with OS X, the server edition — OS X Server — was architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart and usually ran on Apple’s line of Macintosh server hardware. OS X Server included work group management and administration software tools that provide simplified access to key network services, including a mail transfer agent, a Samba server, anLDAP server, a domain name server, and others. With Mac OS X v10.7 Lion, all server aspects of Mac OS X Server have been integrated into the client version and the product re-branded as “OS X” (dropping “Mac” from the name). The server tools are now offered as an application.
Linux and GNU
Linux (or GNU/Linux) is a Unix-like operating system that was developed without any actual UNIX code, unlike BSD and its variants. Linux can be used on a wide range of devices from supercomputers to wristwatches. The Linux kernel is released under an open source license, so anyone can read and modify its code. It has been modified to run on a large variety of electronics. Although estimates suggest that Linux is used on 1.82% of all personal computers, it has been widely adopted for use in servers and embedded systems (such as cell phones). Linux has superseded Unix in most places,[which?] and is used on the 10 most powerful supercomputers in the world. The Linux kernel is used in some popular distributions, such as Red Hat, Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Google’s Android.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

The GNU project is a mass collaboration of programmers who seek to create a completely free and open operating system that was similar to UNIX but with completely original code. It was started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, and is responsible for many of the parts of most Linux variants. Thousands of pieces of software for virtually every operating system are licensed under the GNU General Public License. Meanwhile, the Linux kernel began as a side project of Linus Torvalds, a university student from Finland. In 1991, Torvalds began work on it, and posted information about his project on a newsgroup for students and programmers. He received a wave of support and volunteers who ended up creating a full-fledged kernel. Programmers from GNU took notice, and members or both projects worked to integrate the finished GNU parts with the Linux kernel in order to create a full-fledged operating system.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

GOOGLE CHROMIUM OS
Chromium is an operating system based on the Linux kernel and designed by Google. Since Chromium OS targets computer users who spend most of their time on the Internet, it is mainly a web browser with limited ability to run local applications, though it has a built-in file manager and media player. Instead, it relies on Internet applications (or Web apps) used in the web browser to accomplish tasks such as word processing. Chromium OS differs from Chrome OS in that Chromium is open-source and used primarily by developers whereas Chrome OS is the operating system shipped out in Chrome books.
Microsoft Windows
THE USB FLASH DRIVE
Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems designed by Microsoft and primarily targeted to Intel architecture based computers, with an estimated 88.9 percent total usage share on Web connected computers. The newest version is Windows 8.1 for workstations and Windows Server 2012 R2 for servers. Windows 7 recently overtook Windows XP as most used OS.
Microsoft Windows originated in 1985 as an operating environment running on top of MS-DOS, which was the standard operating system shipped on most Intel architecture personal computers at the time. In 1995, Windows 95 was released which only used MS-DOS as a bootstrap. For backwards compatibility, Win9x could run real-mode MS-DOS and 16 bits Windows 3.x [24] drivers. Windows ME, released in 2000, was the last version in the Win9x family. Later versions have all been based on the Windows NT kernel. Current client versions of Windows run on IA-32, x86-64 and 32-bit ARM microprocessors. In addition Itanium is still supported in older server version Windows Server 2008 R2. In the past, Windows NT supported additional architectures.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Server editions of Windows are widely used. In recent years, Microsoft has expended significant capital in an effort to promote the use of Windows as a server operating system. However, Windows’ usage on servers is not as widespread as on personal computers, as Windows competes against Linux and BSD for server market share.
OTHER
There have been many operating systems that were significant in their day but are no longer so, such as Amiga0S; 05/2from IBM and Microsoft; Mac OS, the non-Unix precursor to Apple’s Mac OS X; BeOS; XTS-300; RISC OS; MorphOS; Haiku;BareMetal and Free Mint. Some are still used in niche markets and continue to be developed as minority platforms for enthusiast communities and specialist applications. OpenVMS formerly from DEC, is still under active development by Hewlett-Packard. Yet other operating systems are used almost exclusively in academia, for operating systems education or to do research on operating system concepts. A typical example of a system that fulfills both roles is MINIX, while for example Singularity is used purely for research.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Other operating systems have failed to win significant market share, but have introduced innovations that have influenced mainstream operating systems, not least Bell Labs’ Plan 9.
HYBRID OPERATING SYSTEM
Console OS runs natively on Intel’s x86 architecture, so is not an emulator, runs Windows as usual and with a toggle in 10 seconds can uses real Android apps. Console OS can runs in PC and Intel Tablet with Windows

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM
There are Many Functions those are Performed by the Operating System But the Main Goal of Operating System is to Provide the Interface between the user and the hardware Means Provides the Interface for Working on the System by the user. The various Functions those are Performed by the Operating System are as Explained below:-

OPERATING SYSTEM AS A RESOURCE MANAGER
Operating System Also Known as the Resource Manager Means Operating System will Manages all the Resources those are Attached to the System means all the Resource like Memory and Processor and all the Input output Devices those are Attached to the System are Known as the Resources of the Computer System and the Operating system will Manage all the Resources of the System. The Operating System will identify at which Time the CPU will perform which Operation and in which Time the Memory is used by which Programs. And which Input Device will respond to which Request of the user means When the Input and Output Devices are used by the which Programs. So this will manage all the Resources those are attached to the Computer System.

STORAGE MANAGEMENT
Operating System also Controls the all the Storage Operations means how the data or files will be Stored into the computers and how the Files will be Accessed by the users etc. All the Operations those are Responsible for Storing and Accessing the Files is determined by the Operating System Operating System also Allows us Creation of Files, Creation of Directories and Reading and Writing the data of Files and Directories and also Copy the contents of the Files and the Directories from One Place to Another Place.
1) Process Management: The Operating System also Treats the Process Management means all the Processes those are given by the user or the Process those are System’s own Process are Handled by the Operating System. The Operating System will create the Priorities foe the user and also Start or Stops the Execution of the Process and Also Makes the Child Process after dividing the Large Processes into the Small Processes.
2) Memory Management: Operating System also Manages the Memory of the Computer System means Provide the Memory to the Process and Also Deal locate the Memory from the Process. And also defines that if a Process gets completed then this will deal locate the Memory from the Processes.
3) Extended Machine : Operating System also behaves like an Extended Machine means Operating system also Provides us Sharing of Files between Multiple Users, also Provides Some Graphical Environments and also Provides Various Languages for Communications and also Provides Many Complex Operations like using Many Hardware’s and Software’s.
4) Mastermind: Operating System also performs Many Functions and for those Reasons we can say that Operating System is a Mastermind. It provides Booting without an Operating System and Provides Facility to increase the Logical Memory of the Computer System by using the Physical Memory of the Computer System and also provides various Types of Formats Like NTFS and FAT F le Systems.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Operating System also controls the Errors those have been Occurred into the Program and Also Provides Recovery of the System when the System gets Damaged Means When due to Some Hardware Failure , if System Doesn’t Works properly then this Recover the System and also Correct the System and also Provides us the Backup Facility. And Operating System also breaks the large program into the Smaller Programs those are also called as the threads. And execute those threads one by one.

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CLICK HERE FOR QUESTION # 05

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 http://aiouassignments.com/information-and-communication-technology-solved-assignment-1-code-1431/ Sat, 30 Dec 2017 10:42:16 +0000 http://aiouassignments.com/?p=1026 Information and communication technology solved assignment 1 code 1431 very interesting and knowledgeable assignment. Information and communication technology solved assignment 1 code 1431 for the students of aiou. Bachelor’s students of aiou must need this information and communication technology solved assignment 1 code 1431 for the semester autumn 2017. This assignment information and communication technology …

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

QUESTION NO.5:-
WRITE A NOTE ON THE FOLLOWING TOPICS:
> TYPES OF MONITORS
> SOCIAL NETWORKING WEBSITES

Answer-
> Types of monitors CRT or Cathode Ray Tube CRT stands for cathode-ray tube and is a technology has been around for a long time
Monitor
LCD or Flat Panel Monitor LCD stands for liquid crystal display and although it may seem like this is a new technology it has been used in digital watches for years. The technology works by passing an electric current through liquid crystal which is contained between two sheets of polarizing material.
There are 2 types of color LCD’s, passive matrix and active matrix also known as TFT (thin film transistor). Passive matrix LCD’s are the less expensive of the two types.
LED and OLED – Light Emitting Diode or Organic LED works without a backlight.
Types of OLED are PMOLED and AMOLED Passive and Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode
Plasma Display — is a type of flat panel display that utilizes small cells containing electrically charged ionized gas.
Projectors — Use for presentation the 3 types of projectors are (CRT, LCD and DLP) Digital Light Processing

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 B.A

MONITOR SPECS
Monitor supports Pixels and RGB color support (Red, Green and Blue)
Resolution and Refresh Rates the resolution is the number of dots displayed on the entire screen. The higher the resolution the smaller everything on the screen will be. This can be a benefit for running multiple applications at the same time but can also be a burden for someone with poor eyesight. Common resolution supports include 640 * 480, 800. 600 and 1,024*768 and so forth.
The refresh rate of a monitor is the frequency at which the screen is redrawn. The higher the number the more often the screen is redrawn and the less flicker will occur. Common Refresh rate are 60 to 80Hertz
Refresh rates for CRT’s will also vary but the minimum refresh rate should be at least 70Hz. Anything below 70Hz and people can start to notice the screen flicker as it is redrawn which can cause eye strain.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431

SCREEN
The screen size is measured diagonally from corner to corner Most Monitor can display 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 27 and 32 inches Viewing
Size
Angle
LCD/LED/OLED/Plasma – The viewing angle indicates at what angle the monitor can be viewed vertically and horizontally and still be seen.
CRT – CRT monitor can be viewed at almost any angle

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431

Contrast Ratio
The contrast ratio determines how rich colors will appear on-screen, the higher the ratio the better. Contrast ratios range from 200:1 up to 1000:1
Brightness
LCD/LED/OLED – The brightness states how bright the LCD display will be and ranges from 200 cd/ m 2 to 350 cd/m 2. For the most part, all LCD monitors exhibit sufficient brightness for any type of use.
Dot pitch
This is the space between image pixels on the screen measured in millimeters
LCD – The less space between dots the better and sharper the image will be so the lower the number stated for this spec the better. Dot pitch ranges between .28mm to .24mm in all model categories.
CRT – The less space between dots the better and sharper the image will be so the lower the number stated for this spec the better. Dot pitch ranges between .28mm to .24mm in all model categories.
Multiple Monitor or Dual View Monitor is a Windows feature that allows you to duplicate or extend the desktop across to multiple displays and monitors.
Monitor Greenish Dead Black
Tint
(Bad Border

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431

Monitor
Troubleshooting Or Bent Pins) Pixels around monitors
No Displays • Note never work on monitors very dangerous Custom PC Configurations Audio/Video Editing Workstation (Special video card, large fast hard drives and dual monitors) Graphics Art PCs (Photoshop) Music Recording PCs (Logic Pro)
Video Recording PCs (Pinnacle) CAD/CAM Workstation (Powerful CPU, High end video and maximum RAM)
Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing Virtualization Workstation Type 1 Native: VMware, Citrix and Hyper V
Type 2 Hosted: VMware Server and MS Virtual PC Thin and Thick Clients (Basic and Desktop Applications)
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431

Home Server PC (Media Streaming, File Sharing, Print Sharing, Gigabit NIC and RAID) Home Theater PC (HTPC) (Surround Sound, HDMI, TV Tuner) Gaming PC (Powerful CPU, High end video/GPU, Sound Card and high end cooling) Gaming Consoles: PlayStation, Xbox and Wii

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431

SOCIAL NETWORKING WEBSITES:-
Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or a neighborhood subdivision, if you will. Although social networking is possible in person, especially in the workplace, universities, and high schools, it is most popular online. This is because unlike most high schools, colleges, or workplaces, the internet is filled with millions of individuals who are looking to meet other people, to gather and share first-hand information and experiences about cooking, golfing, gardening, developing friendships professional alliances, finding employment, business-to-business marketing and even groups sharing information about baking cookies to the Thrive Movement. The topics and interests are as varied and rich as the story of our universe unblocked games tank trouble.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431

When it comes to online social networking, websites are commonly used. These websites are known as social sites. Social networking websites function like an online community of internet users. Depending on the website in question, many of these online community members share common interests in hobbies, religion, politics and alternative lifestyles. Once you are granted access to a social networking website you can begin to socialize. This socialization may include reading the profile pages of other members and possibly even contacting them.

FOR QUESTIONS # 01 – 02 CLICK HERE
FOR QUESTIONS # 03 – 04 CLICK HERE

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AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017 BACHELOR STUDENTS.

QUESTION NO.3-
DISCUSS THE PURPOSE OF POINT & DRAW DEVICES? ALSO DESCRIBES THE CONCEPT OF ELECTRONICALLY CARD READER” IN YOUR OWN WORDS

A point and draw device of a computer includes: a X axis and Y — axis driving gear system respectively mounted in a housing and generally orienting perpendicularly with each other, and a driving plate for driving the two gear systems slid ably held in the housing having an actuating portion protruding upwardly from the driving plate through a top window formed in an upper cover of the housing, whereby upon coordinated moving of the driving plate to move the X-axis or Y-axis driving gear system, a movement pulse signal can be electronically sensed for encoding the pulse signals into the computer to be decoded and red for moving a cursor on a CRT screen of the computer corresponding to the movement of the driving plate in the housing for an effective, reliable and ergonomic manipulation of the point and draw device.
As of today, mouse is the most popular point and draw device. It has become a must have input device on personal computer and work stations, which have a GUI-based user interface .It is a small hand held device, which can comfortably fit in a user’s palm. Since all movements of the mouse are reproduced by the graphics cursor on the screen, you can move the graphics cursor at a menu item or an icon by moving the mouse. With the proper software, a mouse can also be used to draw pictures on the screen and edit text. Another point and draw device is an electronic pen. In a pen based system, you hold the pen in your hand and directly point with it on the screen to select menu items or icons, or directly draw graphics on the screen with it, or can write a special pad.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017 B.COM

The most common input devices are by far and keyboard and the mouse, which is a point and draw device. Most of our interaction with a computer is performed using one of these or a combination of the two. However there are many kinds of input devices that serve special needs.
There are several kinds of point and draw devices. The most notable is the mouse. Others include the following.
0 Joystick
0 Trackball
0 Mouse pen
0 Digitizer tablet and pen
0 Track points

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

CONCEPT OF ELECTRONICALLY CARD READER
Card readers are hardware devices that let one write and read data on a memory card (such as a multimedia card). Some card readers have multiple slots for different cards while some have only one card slot.
The function of a memory card reader is to read data from a memory card. When a memory card is placed into a card reader, it shows on the PC as a mounted disk. The content of the memory card can then be accessed by double-clicking the card’s icon. The card icon can be seen on “My Computer” on Window PCs
A device that can decode the information contained in a credit or debit card’s magnetic strip or microchip. Card readers allow customers to access their bank accounts through ATM machines and allow consumers to make purchases using credit and debit cards. The card’s magnetic strip or microchip contains information including the cardholder’s name, account number, card expiration date and card validation code. The card reader decodes this information, and it is transmitted to a payment processor. The payment processor then verifies that sufficient funds are available to complete the transaction, and the merchant completes the sale.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

Before there were card readers, merchants used manual devices at the point of sale to take a physical imprint of the embossed customer name and account number from the front of the credit card. These devices, colloquially ca led “knuckle busters” because users would often scrape their knuckles on the device while using them, became widespread in the 19505 when credit card use became more common. These manual devices cannot read or transmit data stored on credit cards; merchants have to transmit the information from the carbon copies to the payment processor long after the transaction is complete. Today, some merchants keep manual imprinters on hand as a back-up option for accepting credit cards when electronic payment systems are down.
Traditionally, electronic card readers have been integrated with stationary payment systems — the point-of-sale terminals we envision when we think of using a credit card to pay at the store. Thanks to modern technology, credit card readers are now small and portable. They are also easily and inexpensively available to almost anyone who wants to accept credit card payments. All it takes is a small device that plugs in to a smartphone or tablet. The card reader itself is sometimes free, and the payment processor that issues the reader makes money by collecting a small percentage of each credit card transaction, such as 2.75%.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

Usually, a photo folder may automatically open when one inserts a card reader since most cards frequently contain pictures from digital cameras. This enables an easy medium of importing pictures into one’s photo album on the computer. If one does not desire to transfer photos, one can simply close the program, and the card can still be accessed on the computer.
Once the user is ready to remove the card reader, he should ensure he uses the “eject” command on the computer to do it. This will help avoid data on the card from getting damaged.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

QUESTION NO.4:-
A) WRITE DOWN THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF “INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY’ B) WRITE DOWN THE IMPORTANCE OF ICT IN DAILY LIFE USE

Answer:-
Information and communications technology is the study, development and application of computer-based information systems using telephones, televisions, radios, mobiles, computers and computer software to convert, store, process, protect and transmit information.
Information and communications technology (ICT) is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

The phrase ICT had been used by academic researchers since the 1980s, but it became popular after it was used in a report to the UK government by Dennis Stevenson in 1997 and in the revised National Curriculum for England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2000. As of September 2013, the term “ICT” in the UK National Curriculum has been replaced by the broader term “computing”.
The term ICT is now also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.
The key features of information and communication technology are speed and capacity. You can now access a vast wealth of information speedily from anywhere in the world using search engines. There is greater capacity to store and process data including text, sounds and images with computers ICT can affect in the spread of education and to enable greater access to it. Moreover, they increase flexibility so that students can access educational resources regardless of time and geographical barriers. They can affect the way that students are given instruction and how they learn. They enable collaborative development of skills and abilities to create knowledge. This as a result will bring a better preparation for students, lifelong learning and the opportunity to join industry. ICT can improve the quality of learning and contribute to the overall economy.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

“Information and Communication Technology considered the most powerful means of education in this century. This is as true that today opened a debate that if has changed the classical meaning of education. If not entirely, at least the conception of education, as a process, that cannot be limited to the classical form of knowledge, and its transmission within the classical institutions”, from (http://www.mash.gov.al). All these continuous transformations brought by the digital era justify the need to include technology in the education sector in Albania.
Below, we are citing some of the advantages that flow from the use of ICT in education: “Eliminates barriers to education for students and for teachers” (Sanyal et., 2001), (Mooij et al., 2007), (Cross et al., 2007), (UNESCO, 2002), (Bhattacharya,. 2007); “Eliminates geographic barriers for students to be able to access knowledge resources from any location” (Sanyal et., 2001), (Mooij et al., 2007), (Cross et al., 2007), (UNESCO, 2002), (Bhattacharya,. 2007);
“Allows use of new methods of education” (Sanyal et., 2001); “Provides a balanced combination of work and family life education” (UNESCO, 2002), (Bhattacharya,. 2007); “Increase the international dimension of education services” (UNESCO, 2002); “Allows education in the appropriate time and amount for employees of Organizations” (UNESCO, 2002) ;”ICT can also be used for non-formal education such as health campaigns and campaigns for illiteracy” (UNESCO, 2002) .

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

Authors (Barolli et al., 2009) notes: “How much access students have today and how use ICT, how could improve the process of teaching and learning and within the academic sphere through it, are today key problems. Realization of process of teaching and learning through ICT can be achieved inter alia through a series of factors as: The necessary infrastructure related to ICT together with relevant technologies. Preparation accompanied training of human recourses that will work, with this technology and supported in this infrastructure.” During their studies (Bates et al., 2000) cite: “offers four levels of supporting the human resources required to fully exploit the use of ICTs: infrastructure support staff of technology (technical support – installs, manages, updates and maintains networks and devices) technologies for support staff education (staff that supports the development and implementation of programs and educational materials using technology), design of teaching staff (staff that provides services and educational expertise such as the design of instruction, professional development, project management, support for the use of technology for teaching), and subject experts (those who create content, such as academic staff).” We also noticed some others as: Interaction with people in the process of world globalization; contribution in the field of information; overhaul of the classic model of giving information; exchange of ideas; learning exchange of ideas; recycling of time; formal learning; learning with measurement; collaboration; activation of attention; commitment; materialization efficiency; there will be not enable that student to work less, but will engage pupils to do with more work. Different experiences have shown that investment in ICT for education sector contributes to the growth of knowledge and human capital, which provides many benefits for stakeholders

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

Information and communication technology has created new jobs and employment opportunities for systems analysts, computer programmers and web designers to mention just a few. This has enabled those employed in the information and communication technological sector to make a living through the revenues they receive.
Without discussing more advantages of ICT, that they are without counting on the delivery of a range of benefits, again there are some risks of using ICT in education which should be alleviated through appropriate mechanisms, as cited from authors (11] that are part of this study.
Below we list some disadvantages of using ICT in education: “ICT can create a partition, digital gap within the classroom, where students are more familiar with ICT and will have more benefits, will learn faster than others un familiar to technology; Can remove the attention from the main goal of the learning process to develop ICT skills, which may be a secondary goal in this process; May affect the connection process between teacher and student, as ICT become a communication tool instead of face to face communication, so the distance of the transaction will increase; Also since not all teachers are ICT experts, they may be negligent in updating the content of courses, which can slow down the process of learning to students”. But we mention and for: “Also there is a need for training related to ICT by all stakeholders; Cost of hardware’s and software can be high; Exit from the concrete life and spread of virtual life; Feeling of filling that gap and loneliness; Informative learning; Individual learning; Individualism”.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

Information and communication technology has led to job redundancies for many through its steady and progressive inventions as those operating with older technology have found themselves without a secured market as clientele move on to new technology.
Information and communication technology has also provided access to damaging information through various websites that host destructive and immoral content.
b)
Information and communications technology (ICT) has become, within a very short time, one of the basic building blocks of modern society. Many countries now regard understanding ICT and mastering the basic skills and concepts of ICT as part of the core of education, alongside reading, writing and numeracy. Information and technology has helped a lot in the field of jobs. IT industry introduced some unique and rare jobs which wasn’t very popular even in late 1980. This field has appeared as a solution to increase the number of employments and reduce the number of unemployment in our society. IT industry created a lot of job facilities for people who have skills in IT. It has created jobs like- Web developer, IT network administrator, computer game designer, IT technicians etc. IT industry also helped many people to become successful self-employer. For example-Steve Jobs who was the founder of Apple Inc. along with Ronald Wayne. Bill Gates who is the founder of “Microsoft.” Mark Zuckerberg the founder of famous social networking site “Facebook.” This is also helpful because they have also employed people in their own company which is also part of IT industry.
It has not only created jobs for many people, but it has also taken away many jobs in the society. For example- now a days people like to buy their products online which has led to reduction in floor jobs. For example- Comet has gone into administration because it can’t cope with the online competition from different online shopping like Amazon and EBay.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

Education-
The technology helped us in our education as well. This has introduced the easiest way of learning and teaching for both students and the teachers. It has also introduced us to know about modern discoveries and also historical things as well. We can use internet everywhere to different books and also we can watch videos on the internet to get more ideas about the topic that we want to research on. Now a days we use projector in our school and other educational field to discuss the work with the whole class. We can also get ideas by reading blogs about different things and also discuss each other’s view about some topics that is related to the education using blogs. We can also ask question from our teacher using emails while we are at home which could be very important especially before the exam day and we can also research on the internet and we don’t have to look at the books and find the right page. This saves lot of time for the students. We can also take help from our friends to learn in a collaborate environment.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

Although there are some advantages of using IT in our education it also has some disadvantages as well. Now a day’s people relies on the Internet too much that they believe on everything that is written on the web page. It has also taken the jobs from the library as because most of the people rely on the internet library as because they can buy their favorite books on the internet. So libraries are shutting down because people are relying on the Internet library.
CRIME AND POLICING-
IT has introduced a lot of things which prevents people committing crime. CCTV camera, GPRS system, using database for finding criminals’ information are some unique thing which cannot be possible without the blessing of IT. In common days police uses GPRS to track someone’s car, mobile phone if it has been stolen. Police uses CCTV camera to detect criminals’ face. Fingerprint is another especial method with which the police can identify the thieves. This is making our life safer and very easy in many ways. For example- in big super markets like ASDA or Tesco doesn’t need to think about too much if someone tries to still their products, because some products have got chips which can be detected if that product isn’t swiped over the bar code reader.
They can also use CCTV cameras to help them protecting their products.
The main disadvantage created by the technology system is that anyone who knows how to create program, they can hack others device using viruses, Phishing and also Malicious software. They can be very threatening as because they can take your information which can be very confidential for you. I.e. Your bank card. Sometimes people also delete others files to annoy people which can led someone to lose their important work as well.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

RETAILING
IT has impacted on Retailing and we are greatly enjoying the benefit of using IT on Retailing. We are using IT on retailing which helps us to buy anything 24/7 every day. We can use this facility to choose whatever we want at any time we want. We can choose range of items on the internet and we don’t even have to go to a place to choose whatever we want. We can also reserve the items on the internet. We can pay for the items on the internet with a safe internet payment option which is PayPal. We can also choose products from different countries on the Internet and buy them using the advantage of IT. IT also helped companies to make more money and spend less on their business. The company does not need to hire more staffs for the company.
Although it has some advantage on Retailing but there are some disadvantage as well. It can sometimes become very discouraging for small shops as they can’t compete with big supermarkets like Tesco which has both online shopping and normal shopping facility for the consumers. So they have to close their shops. Sometimes the customers can’t get their necessary staffs when they needed because of the late delivery.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

HEALTH
When we get sick, we don’t want to go to anywhere instead of staying at home. But we had to move on from that point and we had to forcefully take ourselves to the doctors. Taking appointment, talking to the receptionist, describing the problem we have and then then waiting for it, increases our illness. This is when IT comes to help us. Now a days we don’t need to go to the doctor and describe our problems, we can use Internet to contact with our doctor. We can use also use IT to do face to face communication with our doctor even though we are at home. We can also frequently ask question to our doctors and they can also answer us using E-mails. We doesn’t have to even take appointment to contact with our doctors and we can contact with our doctor whenever we want. We can also use this facility to learn about our disease and how to cure ourselves. We can search on the internet to research about the disease and the medicine we have to use to get better. It is also very helpful for those students who are studying to become doctors and also who like to know more about different kind of medicines.
IT provides us with lot of advantages. But it also has some disadvantages. If someone uses computer for long time then they can get headache, it can also cause neck pain, can make them nothing apart from sitting in front of the computer. Some teenagers also puts too much time on their games instead of studying or taking part in different physical activities. Some people also gets stretch if they get bullied on the internet, which may stop them to go outside and they sometimes feel scared to talk to anybody.

AIOU CODE 1431 COMPUTER SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2017

BUSINESS
Communication is a very important technique which is used to make a business very famous. In earlier days, people used to communicate in a different way. They had to go to everyone’s house to promote their products which could take a long time to promote their product. They sometimes used to take long
Journey so that they can deal with someone and they can expand their business. Since technology has arrived, people still using the technique which is communication but they have changed the method of promoting their products or dealing with someone who is far from one another. Instead of going to everyone’s house separately, people are making advertisement, which not involves one area or a country but the whole world and we can also use IT to communicate someone who too far from each other. We can use e-mailing method to know more about our customers. They can also frequently ask us some questions related to our business.

FOR QUESTIONS # 01 – 02 CLICK HERE
FOR QUESTIONS # 05 CLICK HERE

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Aiou solved assignment 1 code 1431 autumn 2017 is being uploading for B.Com and B.A level students. Aiou solved assignment 1 code 1431 autumn 2017 for the subject Information and computer Technology. We here are delivering you the aiou solved assignment 1 code 1431 autumn 2017. This AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017 is completely solved by the Computer Masters. So always rely on us and our solved assignments.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017 COMPUTER

Question No. I:-
A) DEFINE THE TERM COMPUTER. ALSO DESCRIBE DIFFERENT TYPES AS WELL AS APPLICATIONS OF THE COMPUTER.
B) HOW INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES MAY PROVE TO BE USEFUL IN AN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. EXPLAIN IT IN DETAIL WITH THE HELP OF SUITABLE EXAMPLES
Answer:-
COMPUTER:-
A computer is an electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept data, manipulate the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use. Computers process data to create information. Data is a collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols. Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. To process data into information, a computer uses hardware and software. Hardware is the electric, electronic, and mechanical equipment that makes up a computer. Software is the series of instructions that tells the hardware how to perform tasks.
Technically, a computer is a programmable machine. This means it can execute a programmed list of instructions and respond to new instructions that it is given. Today, however, the term is most often used to refer to the desktop and laptop computers that most people use. When referring to a desktop model, the term “computer” technically only refers to the computer itself — not the monitor, keyboard, and mouse. Still, it is acceptable to refer to everything together as the computer. If you want to be really technical, the box that holds the computer is called the “system unit.”

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Some of the major parts of a personal computer (or PC) include the motherboard, CPU, memory (or RAM), hard drive, and video card. While personal computers are by far the most common type of computers today, there are several other types of computers. For example, a “minicomputer” is a powerful computer that can support many users at once. A “mainframe” is a large, high-powered computer that can perform billions of calculations from multiple sources at one time. Finally, a “supercomputer” is a machine that can process billions of instructions a second and is used to calculate extremely complex calculations.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF THE COMPUTER
The main types of computer are supercomputers, mainframes, personal computers, laptops, net books, tablets and smart phones. Each has different purposes and capabilities.
Supercomputers have huge data storage capacities and unrivaled processing power. They are used by large organizations that require immense computing power. These computers are exceptionally expensive and very delicate. Housed in clean rooms, supercomputers must be kept free of dust and debris, and have to be constantly cooled because of the heat they generate.
Mainframe computers have considerably less power and capacity than supercomputers, but significantly more than personal computers. They are capable of processing billions of instructions per second and handle vast quantities of data simultaneously.
Personal computers are common in homes and offices throughout the world. Modern models have large storage capacities and run multiple applications simultaneously.

FIND ALSO:- COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Modern laptops feature similar specifications to desktop computers, with the added bonus of being portable. However, laptops can feel heavy and battery life can be an issue if needing to work for long periods without being able to recharge.
Netbooks are smaller and lighter than laptops, but have considerably less storage capacity and power. However, their small size and minimal weight makes them attractive for browsing the web, checking emails and creating documents when not in the office.
Tablets and smartphones are similar in nature and operate on a touchscreen basis. They are user-friendly, lightweight and very convenient, being popular with people of all ages and backgrounds.
APPLICATIONS OF THE COMPUTER
Most of the beginners confused about types of Computer applications and it is not easy to divide computer applications into any exact categories. At present there is no clear definition available to categorize computer applications. Even though here is a small list of different types of computer applications.
1. Embedded Systems
2. Windows applications (also called ‘Desktop applications’)
3. Web Applications
4. Web Services
5. Console applications

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:-
When we save a name, address and other information in to our Mobile Phone or Digital Diary, You know how it gets saved in it? Nothing but which is a small computer program ‘Embedded’ into a chip in the device inside the mobile phone or digital diary known as Embedded Systems.

WINDOWS APPLICATIONS:
Windows Applications is a form based standard Windows, Microsoft word; Paint is example to the Windows application, and also called ‘Desktop applications’.

WEB APPLICATIONS:
A web site is also called ‘web Applications’. A web applications is a collection of web pages hosted on a special computer called ‘web server’. Web server can be located anywhere and visitors can be located anywhere .It will work through Browsers (EG. Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Netscape).

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

WEB SERVICES:
Web services are web applications that give services to other applications through the internet, example Google search engine, Yahoo Search engine etc. which allows other applications to delegate the task of searching over the internet.

CONSOLE APPLICATIONS:
Console applications runs inside the command prompt i.e. DOS window, it is a light weight program and which is used commonly for test applications.

Ans:- b)
Educational ICT tools can be divided into 3 categories: Input source, Output source and Others. See the following graph :
Worldwide research has shown that ICT can lead to improved student learning and better teaching methods. A report made by the National Institute of Multimedia Education in Japan, proved that an increase in student exposure to educational ICT through curriculum integration has a significant and positive impact on student achievement, especially in terms of “Knowledge • Comprehension” • “Practical skill” and “Presentation skill” in subject areas such as mathematics, science, and social study.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

However, you can see that there are many education technology solutions provided in the world which may cause confusion among educators about how to choose the right ICT solution. Let’s have a look at the advantages and disadvantages of ICT tools for education and discover what kind of education ICT solution is suitable for your school needs.
3 MAIN ADVANTAGES OF ICT TOOLS FOR EDUCATION
1• Through ICT, images can easily be used in teaching and improving the retentive memory of students.
2• Through ICT, teachers can easily explain complex instructions and ensure students’ comprehension.
3• Through ICT, teachers are able to create interactive classes and make the lessons more enjoyable, which could improve student attendance and concentration.

3 MAIN DISADVANTGES OF ICT TOOLS FOR EDUCATION
1- Setting up the devices can be very troublesome.
2- Too expensive to afford
3- Hard for teachers to use with a lack of experience using ICT tools

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

QUESTION NO.2:-
A) WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEMORY AND HARD DISK? EXPLAIN IN DETAIL
B) WRITE A SHORT NOTE ON “DATA SCANNING DEVICES”

Answer:- A:-
Difference between memory and hard disk:-

HARD DISK
An opened Hard Disk Drive
A Hard Disk Drive (HDD), or sometimes just hard disk or hard drive, uses physical platters coated with magnetic material to store data. As the disk spins underneath read/write heads, the changes in magnetic polarization can be read by the read head, or they can be set or written by the write head.
A hard disk is a physical device that typically resides in your computer, although it’s very common to have external hard drives connected to your machine using USB or Fire wire.
There are two things that distinguish hard drives from other forms of storage:

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

A traditional hard drive involves moving parts. The platters spin at speeds measured in thousands of revolutions per minute and the read/write head moves back and forth across the spinning platters.
Because magnetic and not electronic components are used for storage, a hard drive retains its contents even when the power is removed.
Computers come with a hard disk on which the operating system and initial set of programs are installed. This is where you’ll save your work. You can replace the hard disk with a larger one, taking care to move the data from the old hard disk to the new. You can also add additional hard disks either internally, if your computer has room, or externally, through USB and similar interfaces. Technically, there’s no limit to how much hard disk space most computers can have, but practically, the sheer number of drives, connections and power required for more drives limits the amount of space you can add.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

The machine that I’m working on now came with a 300-gigabyte drive. It has since been upgraded to include a one terabyte (one trillion bytes) drive, a 1.5 terabyte drive internally and a 500-gigabyte drive attached via a USB connection. The hard disk, sometimes called the “hard drive” (which is actually the mechanism that holds the hard disk), is a spindle of magnetic discs that can hold several gigabytes of data. Therefore, disk space refers to how much space you have available on your hard disk for storing files. When you save a document or install a new program, it gets stored on your hard disk. The more files you download, install, or save on your hard disk, the fuller it becomes.
Memory, on the other hand, is not the same as disk space! Memory refers to the random access memory (RAM) inside your computer. RAM consists of small chips also known as memory modules. Your computer uses memory (RAM) to store actively running programs on the computer, including the operating system. For example, the operating system’s interface and other processes get loaded into memory when the computer boots up. When you open a program like Microsoft Word, it gets loaded into the computer’s memory as well. When you quit the program, the memory is freed up for use by other programs.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Like a hard drive, computer memory is usually measured in either Megabytes (mb) or Gigabytes (gb.) Memory is often referred to as RAM, which stands for Random Access Memory.
Memory is used by computer programs to temporarily store data and every time you turn off your computer, anything stored on the Memory is deleted. For example, if you are playing a computer game, the level you are on might be stored in memory.
The reason computers use Memory to temporarily store data instead of the hard drive is because it can be accessed much quicker than the hard drive can, but most operating systems also use hard drive space like memory as well.
“Memory” is RAM. It’s that simple.
Normally, the term memory refers only to RAM, not your hard disk.
It’s this confusion that I see frequently. A statement like, “I just added 500 gigabytes of memory to my machine,” is unlikely to be true. You might have added 500 gigabytes of hard disk space, but at this writing, 500 gigabytes of RAM is well beyond the reach of any consumer PCs, which tend to max out in the eight, 16 or maybe 32 gigabyte range.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

b)
Optical Recognition System provide another means of minimizing keyed input by capturing data at the source. These systems enable the computer to “red” data by scanning printed text for recognizable patterns.
The banking industry developed one of the earliest scanning systems in the 1950’s for processing Cheque. The Magnetic link Character Recognition (MICR) system is still used throughout the banking industry. The bank, branch, account number and Cheque number are encoded on the Cheque before it is sent to the customer. After the customer has used the Cheque and it comes back to the bank to the bank, all that needs to be entered manually is the amount. MICRO has not been adopted by other industries because the character set has only fourteen symbols.
BAR CODE READER:
Of all the scanning devices, you are probably most familiar with BAR CODE READES. Many retail and grocery stores use some from of bar code reader to determine the item being sold and to retrieve the item price from a computer system. The code reader may be a handled unit or it may be embedded in a countertop. The bar code reader reads the Universal Product Code (UPC), a pattern of bars printed on merchandise. The UPS has gained the use of the code because the system was used to check their accuracy and speed. Today, bar codes are used to update inventory and ensure correct pricing. Federal Express employees can usually tell a customer within a matter of minutes the location of any package.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

OPTICAL MARK READER:
By taking exams, you are familiar with Mark Sense Character Recognition systems. Every time you take a test with a “fill in the bubble” Scranton from and use a #2 lead pencil, you are creating input suitable for and OPTICAL MARK READER (ORMO. A #2 lead pencil works best because of the number of magnetic particles in that weight lead. The OMR sense the magnetized marks, enabling the reader to determine which responses are marked.

OPTICAL SCANNERS:
Can scan typed documents, pictures, graphics or even handwriting into a computer. Photographs scanned into a microcomputer appear clearly on the screen and can be displayed whenever desired. The copy that the computer stores never yellows with age. Early scanners could recognize only text printed in a special OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR) typeface. A scanner converts the image that it sees into numeric digits before storing it in the computer. This conversion process in known as DIGIZING
Depending on the volume and type of material to be scanned, you can use drum scanner, flatbed scanner, sheeted scanner and even small handheld scanners. The small, hadheld scanner sheeted scanners(priced at about $150) are used most frequently with micro microcomputer; however, only 5 per cent of all microcomputer systems are equipped with scanners. Manufacturers responded to user reluctance to use scanners by releasing in 1995 a number of new, small paper scanners priced between $500 and $700.) most of these new devices sit between the keyboard and the monitor and can interface with a fax machine, send e-mail, and store documents on disk for archive purposes.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

DIGITIZER:
Digitizer is used to create drawing and pictures using a digitizer tablet by a process called digitizing. Page
Digitizing is a process by which graphic representations are converted into digitizer consist of 3 main parts — a flat surface called tablet, a small hand held mouse-like device called puck and a special pen like device called stylus. The puck is used to input existing drawings into the computer. The stylus is used to trace exiting drawing placed on the tablet. The user makes contact to the tablet with stylus. As the stylus is connected to the tablet by a write, the traced image is stored in RAM and displayed on the monitor.
ELECTRONIC CARD READER:
Before discussing electronic card reader, let we discuss electronic credit cards. Electronic credit card make it possible to charge online payments to one’s credit card account. It is card details can be encrypted by using the SSL. Protocol in the buyer’s computer, which is available in standard browsers. The number of input devices are common in association with ash transactions. The most common are ATMs and POS terminals.

1. ATM:
Automatic Teller Machine are interactive input/output devices the enable people to make bank transactions screen input as well as magnetic card readers.

2. POS: Point of Sale: terminals are computerized cash registers that also often incorporate touch screen technology and bar-code scanners. These devices allow the input of numerous data such as item sold, price, method of payment, name or Zip code of the buyer, and so on. Some inputs are automated; others may be entered by the operators.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

VISION INPUT SYSTEM:
Are the latest input devices that can recognize the vision/image which appears in the range of its lens? It seems to be very useful and are becoming popular in different Got. Departments like licensing, passport department and other authorities where personal identification is required.

FOR QUESTIONS # 03 – 04 CLICK HERE
FOR QUESTIONS # 05 CLICK HERE

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