Q 01:
Ans: 01
Verb is word use to say something about some person, place or thing. OR Verb is also a word that tells assets something about some person or thing. It is the most important word in a sentence. Verbs are divided into three classes, transitive, intransitive and auxiliary.

If the verb is removed from the sentences, we are not able to make sense of the sentences, these words tell us that some act has been carried out by the object (Noun). The word which is used to indicate that act is knows as verb. No sentence can be considered completed without a verb. Verb is an essential part of a speech. Basic English structure is:
S-V-O : Subject – Verb – Object
O-V-S : Object – Verb – Subject
S-V : Subject Verb

What a person o thing does? What is done to a person or thing? And what a person or thing is?
Verb are the most important words in the language. In fact we cannot make a sentence without verb. Verbs are used to say what people do? They express an action e.g. “The wood cutter sat on the bank”. (What did he do?).
The chief of the verb is to be (am, is are, was, were). These verbs usually have an adjective after them. Verbs are used to express an action or a state of being. If the subject of a sentence is singular, the verb is singular, if the subject is plural the verb is plural. Verbs that take objects are called transitive verbs. Verbs make sentences, ask questions or give commands.

ACTION VERBS: An action verb tells that someone or something does action. Action verbs as its name show, tell of an action for example: Riaz plucked flower (Plucked tells what Riaz did). Sometimes action verbs express an action that cannot be seen, as believe, know, think, remember, and understand.

TRANSITIVE VERBS: Verbs that take objects are called transitive verbs. For example: she opened the door. (The action of the verb “opened” is directed towards the door or the work opened taken direct object, the door).

INTRANSITIVE VERBS:- Verbs that don’t take objects are called in-transitive verbs. For example: he talked nicely, the train arrived late. Some verbs may be transitive in one sentence and intransitive in another. For example: Qadir speaks fluently (Intransitive), and Akbar speaks Urdu (transitive).

LINKING VERB: Some verbs help to make statement not be expressing an action but by linking between two words. Linking word cannot complete the thought of sentence all by itself. It needs to be followed by another word or words are called subject completer. Completers may be nouns, pronouns, adjective or adverbs for example: The hall is full of people. Is a lining verb; “full” is an adjective that tells something about the condition. Other linking verbs are; appear, become, look, seem sound, smell. For example, he seemed aware of this entire situation, its looks bad, it sounds bad.

AUXILIARY VERB:- An auxiliary verb helps the main verb telling what happens. For example he will come out of the room. The auxiliary verb will helps the main verb come. We can eat it (‘can’ is auxiliary). The main verb and it auxiliary verb makes up the complete verb called the verb phrase. For example: Yasin should know the answer.

The four basic forms of verb are called principle parts of the verb. They are infinite, the present participle, the past and the past participle. The four principal parts of the verb ‘do’ are; do (infinitive), doing (present participle) did (past), done (pas perfect) e.g. I do may homework, I am doing my home wok I did may home work. I have done my homework.

REGULAR VERB: A verb that forms its past participle forms by adding ‘d’ or ‘ed’ to the firs principle part (infinite) is regular verb. For example: Use, used, talk, talked.
IRRIGULAR VERB: A verb that forms is pat participle in some other way than a regular verb is an irregular verb an irregular verb. An irregular verb forms their part and past participle in various ways. For example: Begin-Began-Begun, Bring-Brought –Brought and Speak-Spoke-Spoken.

An adverb adds something to (or modified) the meanings of a verb, adjective or adverb.
Adverb of time, adverb of place, adverb of manner, adverb of degree, adverb of reason and interrogative adverbs. The words hat go with verbs are called “Adverb: some tell how an action is done, e.g. the old gentleman walked (verb) slowly (adverb) along a street. The little boy ran (verb) sorrowfully (adverb by the side of river.
These adverb are called adverb of manner, adverbs are often formed by adding an adjective e.g. the boy runs quickly (adverb). The boy is a good runner (adjective). The old gentleman walked slowly (Adverb). The little boy’s behaviors was bad (adjective). The little boy behaves badly (adverb0 but there are some adverbs that are no formed like things e.g. Asif is hard worker (adjective) Asif works hard (adverb). This is a fast train (adjective). It goes very fast (adverbs). Adverbs are generally put after the verb they go with. Adjectives are generally put before the noun they go with. When the adjective end in ‘Y’ the adverb changes the ‘Y’ to ‘I’ and adverbs goes with a verb to tell how when or where an action takes place.

Simple adverbs are different forms one another because of their meanings, such as; time, place, number, manner, quality or state quantity, extend to degree, affirming or denying.
INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS:- are the adverbs a which are used for asking questions think, place, number, manner, quality state, quantity or degree and cause/reason.

RELATIVE ADVERBS:- are just like interrogative adverbs in form but they do not ask questions. In fact they join two sentences together. In this sense a relative adverb is a double part of speech. An adverb and conjunction e.g. this is where we live. In this example the word “Where” has two functions. It is an adverb of place, as well as conjunction.

Auxiliary verb is also called ‘helping verb’. A verb is called auxiliary if it helps to form a reason or mood of some principal verb. It leaves its own use as a verb in favor of the actual principal verb. For example: I have come from my village today. “in this sentence the helping verb ‘have’ leaves its own use as a principal verb in favor of the actual principal verb “come”. Have itself, as a principal verb, means, to own, to possess something. But in this sentence it has lost its meanings as a principal verb and is only helping the actual principal verb in the sentence to give its full meanings. Another example to understand is:- We did not finish our work.
In this above sentence “did” has been used as an auxiliary helping verb because it helps to form a tense (Past indefinite tense) or mood of the principal verb “finish”. In the sentence I did may work in times “the verb did is not a helping verb or auxiliary but a principal verb as it shows a completed action. The same would be used in a sentence like”. We did not finish our work” has become a helping verb because it has lost its own position as a principal verb (which means finished or completed) in Favor of the actual principal verb in the sentence which is “finish:

Let’ see the following sentence.
I. She has been crying for hours.
II. I will be having dinner at that time.
III. They might approve this effort.
In all these above sentences action verb has been used with other words to make meaningful sentences. The helping words are known as auxiliary verbs e.g. will be and might. Auxiliary verbs help the main action verb and tell the time (Present, Past, future). Following are the most commonly used auxiliaries: Shall, should, have, be, many, might, do, will, would, can, could etc.
If two or more words are joined together into a single verb phrase these function as the full verb of the predicate, the first part of the phase is the auxiliary and the second part is lexical verb. We can analyses the above sentences.
I. She has been crying for hours in this sentence (has been) is the auxiliary verb and (crying) is the lexical verb.
II. I will be having dinner in this sentence (will be) is auxiliary and ‘having’ is the lexical verb.
This shows that auxiliary verb acts as helping verb to the lexical (main) verb. But these are some auxiliaries which occur independently such as, be, have and do.

Similarly a lexical verb may have no auxiliaries. He cares, he cried.
No auxiliary: He cries.
One auxiliary: He will Cry.
Two auxiliaries: He has been crying.
Three auxiliaries: He many have been crying.




Q 03:
ARTICLE:- The origin of the word “Article” is a Latin word. “Articles” which means a little joint. In the same language the word “articles” means limb. In English, it points out person or thing like a demonstrative adjective. There are not articles in Urdu like these in English. Therefore it becomes difficult for us to know what article to use and where.

INDEFINITE ARTICLE:- ‘A’ and ‘an’ are called the indefinite articles because we used them when we do not speak of any particular or definite thing or person, for examples a boy, an umbrella, a house, an hour etc. are the examples of indefinite articles.

DEFINITE ARTICLE:- “The” is called the definite article because we use it when we speak of any particular or definite thing or person. For example:-
The house where I live caught fire.
The boy who was weeping was his brother.
He has lost the umbrella given to him by uncle.

The use of indefinite Article (A and An)
“A” is used before:-
1) Words are beginning with “u” giving the consonant sound of “you” as “A university”, a unit, a useful method, a unique idea, a utensil etc.
2) Words beginning “O” giving the consonant sound of “WU” as such, a one sided view, a one Rupee Note. Etc.
3) Words beginning with a vowel, sound like “you” as A European, A eulogy etc.

“AN” is used before:-
1) Words beginning with a vowel as “An orange”, an umbrella, an ant etc.
2) Words beginning with a silent “H” an hour, an heir, an honest friend, etc.
3) Words beginning with a sounded “H” and accented on the second syllable; as an historical building and a heroic act, etc.

A or An is used:-
1) Before a noun denoting any indefinite person or thing; as, “He saw a cat in the room”. A man is siting under the tree.
2) Before common noun that shows a class; as An Ox (i.e. all oxen) is useful animal.
A man lie (all men) is a mortal being. A Lion (i.e. all lions are animals) is a dangerous animal.

“THE” is called the definite article. It is used;
• When we refer to some particular person or thing; as, let us go o the market (i.e. market where we daily go). The man standing near the street is a bigger.
• When we are talking about, for example:- A thief entered a house but he owner of the house waked up and caught the thief.”
• When we are sure that the person or thing meant will be easily understood, for example:- when does the train arrive (it is understood that the person addressed knows what train he man is talking about).
• Before common noun in the singular number o represent a whole class; as, he horse is useful animal. The rose is a beautiful flower etc.
• “The” is not used before proper noun in general but here are the exceptions.

The noun of nations as, the French, the English etc.
The descriptive names of some provinces; as, the Punjab, the central provinces etc.

• The name of Newspapers. As, the Muslim, the Nation.
• The name of ships and aero planes; as Titanic.
• The name of sacred books; as The Holy Quran.
• The name of groups of islands; as the British.
• The name of mountain ranges, but not Single Mountain; as the Himalayas, the Alps.
• He name of rivers, seas, oceans, gulfs; as, he Indus, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf.
• Proper nouns before which defining adjectives come or titles of honor or ranks; as, the Grant Alexander, the late Aziz Bhatti.
• Before nouns that represent some unique person or things, the earth, the sea, the noon, the sky, the world; the North, The East, the West, the South.
• Before adjectives in the superlative degree; as, the coldest day of the season, the strongest enemy and the most comfortable seat. Etc.
• Before a common noun as an abstract noun; as, the patriot (Patriotism) in the sergeant.
• To give special emphasis to a noun; as, here is the answer (The right answer).

The article is not used before.
• Proper ouns; as, London is the largest city in the world. Galib was a famous poet of India.
• Material nouns; as, Gold is heavier then iron.
• Abstract noun inn a general rinse; as, Honesty is the best policy. Beauty always pleases the eye.
• Common noun in the widest sense; as,
• The oak is a kind of tree.
• Name of diseases, sciences, arts, days, months, years and seasons; as, Skin diseases generally breakout in the month of March.
History is an easier subject then physics. I know painting but not music. Names of itles, professions or office when they come before a proper noun; as King George, Queen Victoria.


Q 05:
1) I am not grateful to you.
2) He could not kill the lion.
3) His mother is not baking a cake.
4) There couldn’t have been a thief.
5) You are not in hurry.
6) Tariq could not go by bus.
7) Aren’t you happy?
8) He cannot play the guitar.
9) I had no bad cold.
10) I may not leave for Peshawar tomorrow.


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