Aiou solved assignment 1 code 1431 B A or B.Com for the semester spring 2016. The first solved assignment for code 1431 basic of information and computer technology. Solved assignment 1 code 1431 for spring 2016, b a code 1431 solved assignment 1 spring 2016, aiou solved assignment 1 code 1431 autumn 2016.

ASSIGNMENT No. 01 Basic of ICT 1431 B.A/B.Com Spring 2016

Q no. 1:- Define the term Computer. Also describe basic five operation perform by the computer.
A computer is not an acronym and is sometimes abbreviated as comp or ‘puter. The term “computer” was originally given to humans who performed numerical calculations using mechanical calculators such as the abacus and slide rule. The term was later given to a mechanical device as they began replacing the human computers. Today’s computers are electronic devices that accept data (input), process that data, produces output, and then store (storage) the results.
The first computer was called the ENIAC, which was built during World War 11 (1943-1946). These early computers used vacuum tubes and were very large (sometimes room size) and only found in businesses, Universities, or governments. Later, computers began utilizing transistors as well as smaller and cheaper parts that allowed the common person to own their own computer. This history of computers and related topics can be found on our history page.
A computer system is an interconnected system of components that transmit electronic information between them to accomplish a task given to the computer. Computer systems require several critical components to function, all of equal importance. The hardware components of the computer are the parts you can see and touch. The software components consist of electronic data and programs that give the hardware directions for functioning properly
Today, computers help make jobs that used to be complicated much simpler. For example, a user can write letters in a word processor and edit any portion of the letter anytime, spell check the letter, and move text from another document into the letter, etc. This is just one of the millions of different things a computer is capable of doing.
Basic five operation perform by the computer:-
Today’s computers are often comprised with some or all of the below components (hardware). As technology advances, older technologies such as the floppy disk drive and Zip drive (both shown below) are no longer required or included with computers. There are four basic parts of a computer that runs everything. It doesn’t matter whether you are listening to music, playing a game or surfing the Internet, the four basic parts of a computer completes the tasks for you.
Computer Tower: Inside the tower is the motherboard, which houses the processor (or CPU) that tells the computer to perform instructions, and memory, which lets your computer run efficiently and quickly. Inside you’ll also find a hard drive for storage.
Graphics Card/Monitor: The graphics card translates all the bits and bytes into a visual representation to the screen. Some kind of graphics cards are included on all computers, whether it’s an integrated card that lets you do the basics or a dedicated card made for gaming.
Input Device: Through the use of a mouse or keyboard you give the computer commands. Other input devices are a touch-screen monitor, light pen and remote control.
Printer: Another visual aspect is the printer. This basic part of a computer lets you obtain hard copies of things you see on the screen. For some, the equipment used to get online is a basic part of the computer. The modem, wireless router or hubs are essential of a user’s need to get access to the Internet.
Storage Media
RAM keeps data in short-term memory the duration of the current work session. When you power off the computer, all data in RAM is lost. Storage devices, such as hard-disk drives or optical drives, allow you to store data long term for later access. Hard-disk drives have several platters that store data magnetically. When you access a file, the operating system looks for the location of the data on the hard drive and sends a signal to the actuator arm, which contains a needle that skims over and reads the clusters of magnetic charges that represent data. Optical drives use a laser that reflects off the read surface of a CD or DVD to represent data.
Peripheral devices connect to the computer externally. Your keyboard, mouse, monitor and speakers are all peripheral devices. The keyboard and mouse are input devices, allowing you to enter text or manipulate an on-screen cursor. The monitor is an output device. It interprets signals from your video card and displays an arrangement of pixels in different colors: red, green and blue. Your speakers interpret data coming from your soundcard and play it as MP3s or other audio files.

Q no.2 a) Discuss the purposes of speech recognition?

The future of personal computing is the Apple Macintosh of today. Armed with speech recognition software, the Mac can listen to and understand voice commands to perform everyday tasks. Follow these simple steps to set up Speech Recognition on your Mac.
How Voice Recognition Works
The sound of a spoken word creates a specific pattern of sound waves on an electronic sensor device. Computer programmers are able to take those sound wave patterns and match them with their corresponding spoken words. For example, the spoken word “cat” produces a squiggly pattern on a sound-scope that the programmer can match to a database of words on file. When someone says “cat” into a computer microphone, the program matches the sound pattern to the word on file and prints the word “cat” on the computer screen. This is a great oversimplification of the process, but it explains how computers can “understand” what you say.
Teaching the Computer to Hear
All modern Voice Recognition software titles “teach” your computer how to recognize your voice patterns. A tutoring stage is built into the initial installation process so that the computer can learn your manner of saying the word “cat.” We all have different accents and manners of speech; this painstaking training time helps the computer software translate your speech into correctly spelled and interpreted words on the screen. Therefore, when you first install a program, such as Dragon Naturally Speaking, you will have to speak a long list of basic words into a microphone so the software can learn your voice. The process can be tedious but the result will be worth the effort.
Other Uses for Voice Recognition
Some Voice Recognition programs do more than just type what you say. Some programs turn a device on or off, such as room lights, a television or some other electrical device controlled by the computer. Once you teach the software what “On” and “Off” or “More Volume” means you can use Voice Recognition to control your environment. Remote control software communicates with an electrical device or accessory, sometimes called an “X Switch” or “X
Circuit” which receives the interpreted message from the computer and activates a mechanical switch as a result.
Still a Work in Progress
While Voice Recognition software certainly has come a long way in the last 50 years, there are still those who would say the technology is still not quite “there” yet, especially software programs that are affordable for mass consumption. These programs, no matter how good they are, are not able to produce the correct word or spelling of a word every time. Things like having a head cold, or working while a noise source is nearby, can confuse a Voice Recognition program and cause it to produce errors. Computers and software still are not as smart as the human brain either. Concepts like the difference between “read” and “red” are hard for a simple Voice Recognition program to discern since understanding words within grammatical context is a very high brain function.
b) What is the difference between memory and hard disk? Explain it in detail.
Flash memory and hard drive-based camcorders have emerged as competitors to traditional tape-based video cameras. These digital cameras provide good video quality in new, more computer-friendly formats. Hard disk camcorders have more capacity. Flash camcorders are more compact.
“Memory” is what’s called “volatile” storage. When the computer is turned off, all of the data is gone. The hard drive is what’s often called “non-volatile” storage. A hard drive stores data in much the same way that a music tape stores your music. The hard drive storage can be deleted or changed and the “current” data will be available next time the computer is turned on.
A range of types of memory are used in computers. Memory is involved in many of the key tasks in computer processing. Without the technologies used to create computer memory, the computing revolution would not have been possible. Understanding the principles in computer memory is an effective way to gain a broader understanding of how your computer carries out its many functions.
Random Access Memory is used for storing data continuously while the computer is running. Anything stored in RAM is volatile and, unlike with data stored on the computer’s hard disk, anything stored in RAM disappears when the computer shuts down. RAM is used by the computer processor to carry out processing instructed by the operating system. The amount of RAM a computer has affects the amount of processing that can be carried out at any one time.
ROM: Read Only Memory is not volatile, so data stored in ROM persists when the computer is turned off and on. ROM contains data for the operating system to interact with the computer hardware, such as the BIOS data — Basic Input/Output System. When a computer is initially started up, data from ROM is used to check memory addresses and hardware components are functioning correctly.
Cache is a type of temporary storage used to access the data items that are most commonly used, as Cache memory is faster than RAM. The computer processor uses Cache memory to maximize on speed when using these key items of data, allowing processors to carry out tasks much faster than if only RAM was being used. By storing frequently used data items, the processor reduces the need to read from and write to locations in memory that are slower to use.
Computer hard disks and removable media such as USB memory sticks are referred to as storage rather than memory, although these are also types of computer memory. The distinction between storage and memory reflects whether the data in question is being stored permanently or temporarily. Hard disk or storage device data is stored permanently, and persists until it is manually deleted, or corrupted in some way. Temporary storage, such as RAM and Cache, is used temporarily. As a computer user, you are more likely to interact directly with the permanent types of memory, for example when managing your files.
Virtual memory is a way of bridging the gap between the temporary and permanent types of storage — between “memory” and “storage”. Virtual memory allows an operating system to use part of the hard disk memory to maximize on the available amount of RAM. Any data in RAM that is not currently being used can be copied onto a space on the hard disk, so that more RAM is available for processing.
What is hard Disk?
Hard drives store data for your computer. Like closets, they can be filled with stuff. However, unlike closets, computers know where everything is and can retrieve data–assuming everything is working properly.
Without a hard drive, a modern computer cannot function. The hard drive holds the installed programs, data files, operating system files and archives found on a computer. When the computer needs them, it reads them off the hard drive and uses them. If it is a data file, the computer might change the file and then save it again.
Modern hard drives come in two flavors, ATA and SCSI. ATA is the most commonly used format, as it is less expensive to produce. SCSI is used commonly in servers, as your can run more of them on one computer; they are faster and are often more durable. Compatibility
Nearly every computer can run an ATA drive, but there are different interfaces for desktops than there are for laptops. Only servers commonly come with an SCSI interface.
Physical Size: Early hard drives had 8-inch platters and measured more than 9 inches across. Some hard drives now have smaller than 1-inch platters and measure less than an inch across. The most common sizes are the 3.5-inch desktop drive and the 2.5-inch laptop drive.
Space on hard drives is measured in bytes. Modern drives are measured in gigabytes or terabytes, while older drives were measured in megabytes. A megabyte is 1,024 bytes, a gigabyte 1,024 megabytes (1,048,576 bytes) and a terabyte is 1,024 gigabytes (1,073,741,824 bytes).
Faster drives mean faster processing. A drive running at 5,200 RPM is standard. If you pay a little more, you can get 7,200 RPM. If you have a server and need real speed, you can pay more and get 10,000 to 15,000 RPM.

Q no. 3 write down the advantages and disadvantages of “Information and Communication Technology”.


Information Communication Technology (ICT) is a term that describes types of technology that are used specifically for communications. It is like Information Technology, but ICT focuses more on technologies that deal with communication, like cell phones, the Internet and wireless networks, among other things.
Because of the convergence of the two technologies in the sense that we increasingly use digital data to communicate, a new term has been coined: information and communication technology (ITC). Today we use computers to call each other and telephones to process data and send emails.
Recent Developments
The field of Information Communication Technology has taken off in the last decade. Developed countries have a higher use of ICT, but developing countries have made significant increases in use over the last five years.
ICT Usage
At the end of 2008, the world had more than 4 billion mobile phone users, and close to one-fourth of the world’s population had access to the Internet.
Utilitarian Objectives
One of the main aims of ICT is to help students to become competent and confident users who can use the basic knowledge and skills acquired to assist them in their daily lives. It is also supposed to prepare students for the world of tomorrow. It aims to help learners to have an open and flexible mind. This will help them to adjust to the inevitable future changes.
Social Aims
It aims to equip learners with the appropriate social skills required to cooperate with fellow ICT learners for a more productive learning experience. It empowers students who are unable to use this technology outside the school premises by ensuring sufficient access to those students. Through this, it will also ensure equity among all learners, as they will all have the same opportunities to use the ICT facilities in school. Another social objective of ICT is to facilitate good communication between the students, thus promoting better social understanding.
Cultural Objectives
ICT aims to assist students to appreciate the beauty and diversity of culture. It also aims to help students become well-cultured citizens of the modern world. It achieves this as it facilitates the discovery and appreciation of various cultural heritages of different countries around the world. Personal Objectives ICT aims to assist students to grow personally by facilitating different methods of learning. Distance-learning programs are now provided by most colleges and universities. Many people are using these programs to get degrees that they would not have been able to receive without ICT. It also aims to allow the public to easily access the necessary information over the Internet.
Americans enjoys relative freedom in the use of ICT, but other governments are struggling to regulate its use. Most recently, governments in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia decided to block features on Blackberry smart phones, which allow citizens to access the Internet without regulation. Starting Oct. 11, 2010, users will not be able to access email or the Internet through their BlackBerrys.
Information Technology
Information technology refers to devices (hardware) and algorithms or programs (software) used to store, retrieve and process data. In simple terms, it refers to all computer applications and devices.
Communication Technology
In the modern sense of the term, communication technology includes electronic systems used for communication between individuals or groups not physically present at the same location. It is about ways people can talk or write to each other and exchange messages, pictures or sounds.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has a major impact on business operations. Companies are able to utilize 1CT to manage business operations from accounting to advertisement. With the rapid development of ICT, it is now possible to conduct more business transactions at a minimal cost compared to the previous era where ICT development was minimal. Business operators and the ICT department are now able to become innovative and discover new ways to make Information and Communication technology work for them.
Information and communications technology refers to a vast network of computer terminals, fiber optic cables and server equipment that collect and present data. Stock market investors are familiar with the stock ticker, which streams stock price quotes between exchange trading floors and numerous data points across the globe. Media outlets, such as CNN and Bloomberg, present and analyze statistical information daily.
Communications technology lowers expenses and improves liquidity for the overall market. Liquidity is synonymous with one’s ability to raise cash on demand. For example, stock traders place sell orders with information technology to quickly receive cash for their investments. Online trading enables smaller investors to bypass expensive financial advisers and coordinate their own trading strategies. Meanwhile, consumers search online for low-priced goods and read reviews to evaluate the quality of big-ticket items.
Criminals may exploit information technology to steal your identity and execute unauthorized money transfers and purchases. Because of this it’s important to install antivirus software on your computers to protect personal information.

Q no. 4. Explain the difference between “ICT” and “Telecommunication”.

IT and ICT are often used interchangeably by those in the computer industry, but these terms are different in definition. IT stands for Information Technology and ICT stands for Information Communication Technology. These are very closely related, but the terms signify two different areas of study or industry. Most simply put, ICT falls under the IT umbrella and refers to the specific area of IT that has to do with communications.
IT is the abbreviation for Information Technology, and is used within texts to be concise. IT refers to the entire information domain, which includes the hardware, software, peripherals, and networking. An item falls under the IT umbrella when it is used for the purposes of storing, protecting, retrieving, and processing data electronically. This is a vast field with many different subspecialties, including networking, communications, and software engineering. IT is an important aspect for businesses and the academic community.
ICT is the abbreviation for Information Communication Technology. The term is used mostly within the academic arena to refer to the branch of IT related to digital devices that are used to communicate or interact with digital information. ICT also draws in telephony and media broadcasting. This term is used to describe a very specific area of IT and is more specific than the general idea of networking.
Training Organizations
Training organizations range from vocational or technical schools at the high school or post-high school level, to a commercial business’s internal training for personnel, to computer company or software developer’s field trainers who provide on-site training on technology systems, to government-funded training programs, such as those geared to building job-related and work search skills and private. ICT training companies.
Best Practices
Best practices for ICT policies in training organizations involve matching learner needs as closely as possible to available resources, such as budget and personnel. For example, a job training center may have an ICT policy of continuously building ICT training resources or core skills such as teamwork and problem solving.
ICT in Health sector
Improving the health of individuals and communities, and strengthening health systems, disease detection and prevention are crucial to development and poverty reduction. ICT has the potential to impact almost every aspect of the health sector. In public health, information management and communication processes are pivotal, and are facilitated or limited by available ICT.
Aspect of the health sector
ICT has the potential to impact upon almost every aspect of the health sector. In public health, information management and communication processes are pivotal, and are facilitated or limited by the available information and communication technology. In addition, beyond the formal health sector, the ability of impoverished communities to access services and engage with and demand a health sector that responds to their priorities and needs, is importantly influenced by wider information and communication processes, mediated by ICT.
IT vs. ICT
The difference between IT and ICT is the concepts that the terms cover. ICT is simply a specific area of IT. The concepts covered within ICT are part of the IT industry but not all IT concepts are covered by the term ICT. It is important to remember this when using the terms both professionally and academically, especially when referring to specific concepts that may fall under one term but not the other.
Within the information industry, the terms ICT and IT are often used interchangeably. However, the definition of ICT is becoming more specific as the industry moves forward. It is important to know if the term is being used correctly, as the entire context of an article or text could be skewed. The definition of 1CT will continue to grow with the industry, as new forms of communications are studied and developed.
his idea can be generally supported by another opinion on the differences between IT and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by e.How contributor Lindsey Mason who generally states in her post that, “IT refers to the entire information domain, which includes the hardware, software, peripherals and networking. An item falls under the IT umbrella when it is used for the purpose of storing, protecting, retrieving, and processing data electronically.

Q no 5.write the short notes on the following topics.

Multimedia Projector A multimedia projector is a compact, high resolution, full-color projector capable of projecting text, images, video and audio content. Typically the projector will feature inputs for a computer, DVD player, VCR, CD player and storage device.
Multimedia projectors are used frequently in classrooms, offices and gatherings at which multimedia presentations are made. In a film class, for example, the teacher can integrate select video sequences into a slide show of note pages. In a marketing meeting, a presenter could alternate seamlessly between spreadsheets, animated ad content and live feeds from social media sites. Synonyms
Multimedia projectors are also referred to as data projectors, digital projectors and data/video projectors. These names can apply to both portable and ceiling-mounted units provided that they can project computer output.
The Epson S5 2000 Lumen 3LCD Multimedia Projector is a portable LCD unit weighing just under 6 lbs. As of 2010, the unit can be purchased new for as little as $589. The Optoma DS317 2600 Lumen SVGA DLP Multimedia Projector is another portable design, with a weight of 9 lbs. and a list price of $449.99, as of 2010.
Electronic mail ((Email)
Electronic mail, or email, has become one of the most popular forms of communication. Not only does email save time and money, it can also be a great tool for personal as well as business communications. A basic email message is made up of seven parts.
Recipient’s Address: The first thing you need to enter when composing an email is the recipient’s address. This is entered before you compose the body of the email. This field is usually found in one of the spaces above the message. An example of an email address is: johndoe©email.com. When sending a message to multiple recipients be sure to separate all addresses with a comma.
Cc and Bcc
Another option when sending a message to multiple recipients is to use the Cc, or carbon copy, and Bcc, blind carbon copy fields. When using the Cc feature, all recipients can see the email addresses of everyone the message was sent to. If you want your communication to be more private, choose the Bcc and the identities of the other recipients will not be shown.
Date and Time Stamp
The date and time an email was sent is usually included automatically somewhere in the message.
Subject Line
The subject line is the first part of your email that the recipient will see. When entering the subject line be sure to include important information such as what the email is about. If you are too vague or don’t include any subject line at all, your message could be mistaken for spam and deleted without ever being read.
The body is where you actually write the message that you want sent. Your message can be anything from a professional memo to a note to friend or family member. Try to avoid writing too much in an email and keep it limited to one screen’s length. If you have c lot of information that needs to be sent include it as an attached file.
Attachments:- Attachments are similar to enclosures in traditional mail. If you have files that you want to share with your recipient’s you can include them as attachments to the email. Use caution when opening attachments sent to you as they can contain viruses, and never open an attachment from somebody you don’t know.
Some email systems allow you to enter a signature that will appear automatically at the bottom of every message you send. This feature is optional and can be turned off and on as needed.
Point and Draw devices
A variety of devices are available that move the graphics cursor to point and draw, each with its advantages. Some point and draw devices are as follow:
1. Mouse:
A mouse is an input device that actually looks a little bit like a mouse. The mouse, which has a ball on its underside, is rolled on a flat surface, usually desk on which the computer sits. Usually a mouse has two button and right button, which can perform the following functions:- The rolling movement causes a corresponding movement on the screen. Moving the allows you to reposition the pointer, or cursor, an indicator on the screen that shows where the next interaction with the computer take place. The cursor can also be moved by pressing various keyboard keys. You can communicate commands to the computer by pressing a button on top of the mouse. In particular, a mouse button is often used to click on an icon, a command to the computer so clicking the icon invokes the commands.
A variation on the mouse is the trackball. You may have used trackball to play a video game. The trackball is like an upside-down mouse, you roll the ball directly with your hand. The popularity of the trackball blast with the advent of laptop computers, when traveling users found themselves without a flat surface on which to role the traditional mouse. Trackballs are often built in on portable computers, but they can also be used as separate input devices with standard desktop computers. Many users prefer trackball because it requires less space when in operation.
A joystick is another cursor controlling device. Joystick look like a car’s stick shift and are often used for computer games and for screen drawing and design tasks. The joysticks move the cursor in the direction the stick is pushed.
Sensitive Screen Input:
The two common forms of sensitive screens are light sensitive screen and touch sensitive screen. Light Sensitive screen: A pen is used to input data via a light sensitive screen. The light pen is similar in shape to a ball point pen. When the pen is moved across the screen, its positioned is sensed because of the light it releases. It can be used to draw images on the screen. The images can then be printed, if desired. The light pen can also be used to make selection from a given list of menu items. The selection is made simply by pointing the pen at the selection required and pressing the button on the pen. Touch Sensitive Screen:
A touch sensitive screen uses the human hand as the input medium. The effect is similar to that of light pen on a light sensitive screen, except that the pointing device is now finger. A common use is the selection of items or options from a given list. When a finger touches the screen, blocks out the light emitted from that portion of the screen. The screen then determines which part of the screen is being touched, anO0d therefore which selection is required. Touch screens are useful for such applications as factory work; a laborer, who may be wearing gloves, can easily point to a selection on the screen instead of trying to press keys.
Social networking Websites.
A social networking service is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on facilitating the building of social networks or social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life connections. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. Online community services are sometimes considered as a social network service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks.
With the introduction of websites such as Facebook.com and Myspace.com, social networking has changed the way people relate to one another. It use to be that your network of friends consisted of those in your neighborhood, people you work with or those you see in town each day. But thanks to the Internet and social networking, you can develop friendships around the world at the click of a button. Not only can you make friends from all over the world, but you can create your own social network, designed with your own creativity and passions.
Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or a neighborhood subdivision, if you will. Although social networking is possible in person, especially in the workplace, universities, and high schools, it is most popular online.
This is because unlike most high schools, colleges, or workplaces, the internet is filled with millions of individuals who are looking to meet other people, to gather and share first-hand information and experiences about cooking, golfing, gardening, developing friendships professional alliances, finding employment, business-to-business marketing and even groups sharing information about baking cookies to the Thrive Movement. The topics and interests are as varied and rich as the story of our universe.
When it comes to online social networking, websites are commonly used. These websites are known as social sites. Social networking websites function like an online community of internet users. Depending on the website in question, many of these online community members share common interests in hobbies, religion, politics and alternative lifestyles. Once you are granted access to a social networking website you can begin to socialize. This socialization may include reading the profile pages of other members and possibly even contacting them.

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