AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016 B.ED
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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 3
Q. 3 DEFINE AND CLARIFY THE CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION. DESCRIBE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION. (20)
Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior. It gives the reasons for people’s actions, desires, and needs. Motivation can also be defined as one’s direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior and vice versa. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior. According to Maehr and Meyer, “Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are.”
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION:- Extrinsic motivation occurs when we are motivated to perform a behavior or engage in an activity to earn a reward or avoid punishment. Examples of behaviors that are the result of extrinsic motivation include:
• Studying because you want to get a good grade
• Cleaning your room to avoid being reprimanded by your parents
• Participating in a sport to win awards
• competing in a contest to win a scholarship
In each of these examples, the behavior is motivated by a desire to gain a reward or avoid an adverse outcome.
Intrinsic motivation involves engaging in a behavior because it is personally rewarding; essentially, performing an activity for its own sake rather than the desire for some external reward. Examples of actions that are the result of intrinsic motivation include:
• Participating in a sport because you find the activity enjoyable
• Solving a word puzzle because you find the challenge fun and exciting
• Playing a game because you find it exciting
In each of these instances, the person’s behavior is motivated by an internal desire to participate in an activity for its own sake.
CODE 8601 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 B.ED AUTUMN 2016
EXTRINSIC VS. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:
Which Is Best? So, the primary difference between the two types of motivation is that extrinsic motivation arises from outside of the individual while intrinsic motivation arises from within. Researchers have also found that the two type of motivation can differ in how effective they are at driving behavior. Some studies have demonstrated that offering excessive external rewards for an already internally rewarding behavior can lead to a reduction in intrinsic motivation, a phenomenon known as the over justification effect. In one study, for example, children who were rewarded for playing with a toy they had already expressed interest in playing with became less interested in the item after being externally rewarded. Extrinsic motivation can be beneficial in some situations, however:
• External rewards can induce interest and participation in something in which the individual had no initial interest.
• Extrinsic rewards can be used to motivate people to acquire new skills or knowledge. Once these early skills have been learned, people may then become more intrinsically motivated to pursue the activity.
• External rewards can also be a source of feedback, allowing people to know when their performance has achieved a standard deserving of reinforcement. Extrinsic motivators should be avoided in situations where:
• The individual already finds the activity intrinsically rewarding
• Offering a reward might make a “play” activity seem more like “work” While most people would suggest that intrinsic motivation is best, it is not always possible in every situation. In some cases, people simply have no internal desire to engage in an activity. Excessive rewards may be problematic, but when used appropriately, extrinsic motivators can be a useful tool. For example, extrinsic motivation can be used to get people to complete a work task or school assignment in which they have no internal interest. Researchers have arrived at three primary conclusions with regards to extrinsic rewards and their influence on intrinsic motivation:
1. UNEXPECTED EXTERNAL REWARDS TYPICALLY DO NOT DECREASE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:- For example, if you get a good grade on a test because you enjoy learning about the subject and the teacher decides to reward you with a gift card to your favorite pizza place, your underlying motivation for learning about the subject will not be affected. However, this needs to be done with caution because people will sometimes come to expect such rewards.
2. PRAISE CAN HELP INCREASE INTERNAL MOTIVATION:- Researchers have found that offering positive praise and feedback when people do something better in comparison to others can improve intrinsic motivation.
3. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION WILL DECREASE, HOWEVER, WHEN EXTERNAL REWARDS ARE GIVEN FOR COMPLETING A PARTICULAR TASK OR ONLY DOING MINIMAL WORK:- For example, if parents heap lavish praise on their child every time he completes a simple task, he will become less intrinsically motivated to perform that task in the future.
SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AIOU CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 4
Q. 4 DEFINE THE TERM INQUIRY APPROACH. WHAT IS MEANT BY INDUCTIVE REASONING?(20)
INQUIRY APPROACH:- Inquiry-based learning (also enquiry-based learning in British English) starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios—rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge. The process is often assisted by a facilitator. Inquirers will identify and research issues and questions to develop their knowledge or solutions. Inquiry-based learning includes problem-based learning, and is generally used in small scale investigations and projects, as well as research. The inquiry-based instruction is principally very closely related to the development and practice of thinking skills.
INDUCTIVE REASONING:- Inductive reasoning is a logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion. Inductive reasoning is often used in applications that involve prediction, forecasting, or behavior. Here is an example:
• Every tornado I have ever seen in the United States rotated counterclockwise, and I have seen dozens of them.
• We see a tornado in the distance, and we are in the United States.
• I conclude that the tornado we see right now must be rotating counterclockwise. A meteorologist will tell you that in the United States (which lies in the northern hemisphere), most tornadoes rotate counterclockwise, but not all of them do. Therefore, the conclusion is probably true, but not necessarily true. Inductive reasoning is, unlike deductive reasoning, not logically rigorous. Imperfection can exist and inaccurate conclusions can occur, however rare; in deductive reasoning the conclusions are mathematically certain. Inductive reasoning is sometimes confused with mathematical induction, an entirely different process. Mathematical induction is a form of deductive reasoning, in which logical certainties are “daisy chained” to derive a general conclusion about an infinite number of objects or situations.
B.ED AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 5
Q. 5 WHAT IS PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH? SPECIFY THE ROLE OF TEACHER IN PROBLEM SOLVING LEARNING. (20)
Problem Solving Approach: There are some problems for which students know the strategy to solve as soon as they examine the problems. However, for particularly hard problems, they do not know right-away how they can solve the problem. The progress on such problems often comes from heuristics or ‘rules of thumb’ that are likely to be useful, but are not guaranteed to solve problems. As a result, the progress on a problem takes the form of multiple explorations or search of different ideas. Progress on a typical problem would involve a student trying out a lot of different leads using such heuristics. Work on the problem solving may go through different phases such as trying to understand the problem, working on a specific approach, getting stuck and trying to get unstuck, critically examining solutions or communicating. The work may involve going back and forth between these different phases of work. On this site, we would now be providing a variety of different suggestions for attacking the problem. Many of these are rules of thumb or heuristics. These heuristics can be described in the form of <condition, action> form where conditions describe problem situations in which these should be applied and actions describe what should be done.
AUTUMN 2016 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 B.ED CODE 8601
THE ROLE OF TEACHER IN PROBLEM SOLVING LEARNING:-
1. Give suggestions not answers
2. Offer a problem solving heuristic
3. Teach a variety of problem solving strategies
4. Allow time for the students to struggle with the problem
5. Choose problems that require time to think through a solution
6. Provide a variety of problems
7. Allow students time to practice a heuristic and strategies
8. Give similar or the same problem in different ways
9. Ask questions that encourage students to:
• think divergently
• Explain how they are thinking.
• to share strategies
• think of other ways that the same problem could be asked
• think of real life problems that are or relate to the problem
• discover different problems that can be solved with the same strategy
• discover multiple ways to solve the problem reflect or check their solutions
• reflect and discuss how they imagined a certain strategy might be possible
• explain why they have confidence in their solutions
10. PROVIDE ENCOURAGEMENT AND APPRECIATION:-
• appreciate different solutions and strategies
• encourage students to find multiple solutions to a problem
• encourage students to take time to solve problems
• compliment students on good problem solving strategies whether they reach a solution or not
• make sure students know what a compliment or praise specifically relates to about the problem and problem solving
• encourage students to keep trying and to learn by correcting mistakes
• let students know that problem solving is difficult and rewarding
• share and discuss attitudes and dispositions that are conducive to problem solving
11. BE A ROLE MODEL:-
• solve problems yourself
• make problem solving a top priority
• let students know that problem solving is an integral part of your curriculum
• look for and comment on problem – solving situations anywhere they occur
• 0 imbed teaching and learning in a problem – solving format
• use sketches, manipulatives, charts, graphs, and any other kind of representation that can thought of
• Use problem solving strategies and vocabulary.
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