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THE KEYS TO GOOD EVALUATION OF YOUR STUDENTS’ PROGRESS:-
1. Gather the appropriate data (assessment)
2. Establish an appropriate value structure to represent the results (evaluation) Formative and Summative Assessments: Two of the Most Important Tools in the Box Though we will also discuss standardized testing, our emphasis is going to be on classroom assessments that a teacher uses. Rather than shifting back and forth between assessment and evaluation, we will make a useful distinction between two types of assessments: formative and summative.
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS:- are those data collection activities that a teacher uses to make instructional decisions. Don’t let the “form” in formative confuse this with meaning a “formal” test (whatever that is). In this case we are using data to help formulate our course of instruction. This could be as structured as a lengthy written test given before a lesson or unit begins to find out what your students know. It could be that same test given to the students midway through the lesson to see how things are going—or even at the end but before the final test just to see whether the students have progressed as you desired. But it could also be a pop test here and there or even just the questions that you ask in class to see how things are going with the lesson. It could also be the case that you use a checklist as you monitor student work. In all of these cases you are using the information to make decisions about what you need to do. No grades are assigned, no stickers distributed, no smiley faces or frowns on the student’s lab report. Formative assessments are the means you use to find out how things are going so that you can decide how to proceed. The robust use of formative assessments, if you pay attention to the data you collect, will be the key to providing effective learning experiences for your students.
So, an important aspect of the assessment component of an effective teacher’s strategy will be the consistent use of formative assessments. Rather than plowing through some unit of study and simply having a test (summative assessment) at the end, a teacher who uses formative assessments throughout instruction can monitor the progress of the students and adjust instruction accordingly. This is the purpose of formative assessments.
It is important for you to understand that assessment techniques represent skills that a teacher must develop. Simply asking a class, “Does everybody understand?” will not suffice for a viable formative assessment. Students who do understand will likely answer affirmatively while students who don’t understand may prefer not to make that point known. No one likes to look foolish in front of one’s peers; thus formative assessments must be conducted in a manner that protects the student’s self-concept. A teacher might conduct formative assessments by asking open-ended questions and watching to see who responds and who does not. One might direct questions at individual students but ask for opinions or rephrasing. The teacher could also ask a question and, upon receiving no response, rephrase the question as if the difficulty had been in the original phrasing. Paper-and-pencil tests, quizzes, checklists, and other exercises that are ungraded protect the self-esteem of a student among classmates but provide the teacher with assessment data that can clarify the instructional route to pursue either with the group or with individuals