SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016 B.ED.
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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016 Q # 1
Q.1 DEFINE DIFFERENT CONCEPTS OF CURRICULUM. CRITICALLY ANALYSE THE PROCESS OF CURRICULUM PLANNING IN PAKISTAN. (20)
DIFFERENT CONCEPTS OF CURRICULUM CONCEPT
1: Curriculum is such “permanent” subjects as grammar, reading, logic, rhetoric, mathematics, and the greatest books of the Western world that best embody essential knowledge.
Concept 2: Curriculum is those subjects that are most useful for living in contemporary society.
Concept 3: Curriculum is all planned learnings for which the school is responsible.
Concept 4: Curriculum is all the experiences learners have under the guidance of the school.
Concept 5: Curriculum is the totality of learning experiences provided to students so that they can attain general skills and knowledge at a variety of learning sites.
Concept 6: Curriculum is what the student constructs from working with the computer and its various networks, such as the Internet.
Concept 7: Curriculum is the questioning of authority and the searching for complex views of human situations.
Concept 8: Curriculum is all the experiences that learners have in the course of living.
Critically Analyze the Process of Curriculum Planning in Pakistan
Education plays a vital role in nation building. Federal Ministry of Education is responsible for the national cohesion, integration and preservation of the ideological foundation of the states.
Federal Ministry of Education is responsible in making of:-
NATIONAL BUREAU OF CURRICULUM AND TEXTBOOKS (NBTC)
Also known as curriculum wing.
Supervise curriculum and textbooks.
Approves and maintain curriculum standards from the primary to the higher secondary levels
Provincial curriculum Centre Every province has a provincial curriculum centre
To ensure provincial collaboration.
Involve in all activities falling within the purview of the federation.
Each Province has its own Provincial Textbook Board (PTTB)
PTTBs are responsible for:-
Marketing school textbooks
Curriculum Design and Development Process
Curriculum Design and Development
Evolution of curriculum objectives.
Development of scheme of studies.
Development of syllabus of each subject.
Development of textbook, instructional material.
Approval of textual material.
Objectives are derived from
Recommendation of the National Education Policy
National Level Seminars
Forums of research studies
Inter Board Committee of Chairmen
NBCT prepares the draft of objectives.
Circulated in provincial institutions responsible for curriculum development.
Objectives are finalized.
Translated to the specific teaching objectives
FACTORS CONSIDERED IN FINALIZING THE OBJECTIVES
Assist in the selection of teaching strategy
Produce a designated behavior pattern
Enables teachers to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of learning.
THE STUDIES SCHEME
It is based on three key factors:
The national education policy
Task work in this area is undertaken with the participation of:
Provincial government Research organizations and experts
Feedback of the IBCC
DEVELOPMENT OF SYLLABI
It is based on objectives and scheme of study.
Subject specific syllabi is prepared in consultation with:
SYLLABI MUST SATISFY THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS:-
Based on the needs of learner.
Take into account the existing knowledge and the environmental experience of the learner.
The development level of the learner is considered in the cognitive, effectiveness and psycho-motor domain.
Content should be focused on attaining the objectives.
Provincial Text Book Boards (PTBB) are responsible for the development of the text-books according to the approved syllabi.
HOW TEXTBOOK IS DEVELOPED?
Establish a list of text book writers.
Invitation are sent to the writers to submit the material within the syllabus parameter.
Selection is made on the basis of relevance of material.
The selected material is transformed into a textbook.
REVIEW THE APPROVAL
National review committee comprises on five or six members:
At least one expert form the syllabus Formulation Committee.
Two subject experts.
Two school teachers
TEXTBOOKS REVIEW PARAMETER
The books truly reflects the curriculum.
It meets the objectives stated in the curriculum.
Book does not contain any material repugnant to Islamic and Pakistani ideology.
In case of approval, textbook is sent for publishing and distribution.
In case of objection, complaints are relayed with revision recommendations.
Teacher training for curriculum implementation is the responsibility of the provincial government.
It is now stressed that each textbook must have a teacher’s guide.
In some cases assistance in the training of the masters trainers is provided to provincial government.
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PITFALLS:-
There are several obstacles affecting the quality and effectiveness of curriculum development process in
Lack of subject area expert.
Textbook often do not reflect the curriculum Lack of follow-up of actual curriculum implementation in classroom practice. Curriculum often different from the official curriculum documentation
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 SPRING 2017 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AT HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL.
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AT HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL
In 1973’s constitution, Government placed education on the concurrent list.
Federal Government took the responsibility to determine the curriculum text boards, policy, planning and standards of education
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION:-
In December, 1976 Federal Government appointed University Grant commission (now HEC) as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work at bachelor level and onwards It aR6 look after the degrees, certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges, universities and other institutions of HEC.
PROCEDURE TO REVIEW/ REVISE CURRICULUM:-
In 45th meeting of Vice-Chancellor’s Committee it’s recommended that the UGC should review the curriculum of a particular discipline after every three years. HEC adopted a procedure to review/ revise curriculum In ensure the quality of the updated curricula.
CODE 8603 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2016 STEPS OF CURRICULUM REVIEW
STEPS INVOLVED IN CURRICULUM REVIEW/REVISION PROCESS
PHASE-I Curricula under consideration.
PHASE — II Circulation of the draft curriculum
PHASE-I Step — I Constitution of National Curriculum Revision Committee (NCRC) in the subject. The Vice-Chancellors of all public and private sector universities, R&D organizations, Directorate of colleges and industries in relation to the subject under consideration, are requested to nominate their representatives, for appointment of National Curriculum Review Committee (NCRC).
Assessment/Analysis of the existing Curriculum
The existing curricula is circulated amongst the members of NCRC to discuss it with their colleagues and bring collective proposals for review and revision of existing curricula in relation to objectives (of teaching the subject).
Scheme of studies
Methods of evaluation.
In this way participation of maximum number of subject experts is ensured
Step — III
The first meeting of the NCRC is organized at the HEC Headquarter Islamabad or one of its Regional Centers at Peshawar, Lahore and Karachi.
Other universities at different places may also be chosen to serve the purpose.
The meeting draft of the revised curricula, after detail discussion and deliberation on the proposals prepared by the NCRC members.
PHASE — II
Circulation Of The Draft Curriculum
Step — IV
Appraisal of the first draft.
The first draft prepared is circulated among the universities, institutions and organization and is viewed for its further improvement. The view/recommendations collected on the draft curriculum were deliberated upon to design and finalize the curriculum of specific subject of study in a final meeting.
Step — V
NCRC meeting-II: Finalization of draft The second meeting of the NCRC is held to finalize the draft of the revised curriculum in the light of comments/suggestions/recommendations received from the college and university teachers and institutions all over the country. The meeting would again take 3 days to finalize a curriculum. The draft so finalized support expertise of all faculty members of the subject under consideration, who are directly or indirectly involved in this process.
Approval of the revised curricula by the Vice-Chancellors’ Committee: The final draft curriculum is submitted to the Vice-Chancellors’ Committee for approval. Implementation the curricula designed is printed and sent to universities/institutions for its adoption/implementation after the approval of the Competent Authority.
SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016 Q # 2
Q.2 DISCUSS IN DETAIL THE EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN THE SUB-CONTINENT OF INDO-PAK. (20)
The process of curriculum development is facing serious issues in Pakistan. These issues are interference of bureaucrats, the absence of involvement of school teachers etc. Experts sitting in curriculum development boards do not use academic resources properly for revising outdated sections of school textbooks. EAST offers innovative solutions for meeting the needs of curriculum development in Pakistan.
WHAT IS CURRICULUM?
While thinking about education, the most important idea that comes to mind is curriculum. Curriculum is a channel that school administration needs for giving educational and life skills to students. However, unluckily, in Pakistani context, this idea is highly misunderstood due to which students do not get enriched educational experience in schools.
CURRICULUM DOES NOT CHANGE IN PAKISTAN
Ghulam Haider in his article, “Process of Curriculum Development in Pakistan,” says that curriculum is not a static process, but it is a dynamic exercise that must undergo changes according to society’s new demands. In Pakistan, curriculum development is a static process. There are many reasons for the failure in developing proper curriculum. Some of them are discussed below.
AUTUMN 2016 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 ISSUES IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
ISSUES IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
1. CURRICULUM IS OUTDATED:- Firstly, the curriculum is outdated, which does not meet the local needs of Pakistani society. Raja Omer Shabbir in his article, “The curriculum problems,” notes that our present generation is learning the same – knowledge that previous two generations have learnt. As students from different parts of the world get difficult mathematical and scientific knowledge by activity-based learning, our students are forced to know scientific concepts through cramming. For example, in school textbooks of Mathematics at primary level, the concepts of shapes in geometry lessons are not written correctly. One example is of sphere and circle. Most of the teachers do not know that a sphere is a solid shape and a circle is a flat shape. Many teachers teach students that the shape of sun is a circle and not a sphere. It is sad situation that experts designing school textbooks of mathematics at primary level do not pay attention to include the concept of solid and flat shapes together.
2. INVOLVEMENT OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS:- Secondly, both Haider and Shabbir note that involvement of government officers in the development of Pakistani curriculum is proving harmful to our education system. Haider suggests that the current process of curriculum development is based on a uniform policy for the whole country that has its particular aims and goals, but he thinks that it is not possible to apply national educational policy to different regions of the country with equality. For example, there are many underdeveloped areas of Pakistan, where parents do not have adequate resources to send their children to schools. The drop-out rate from schools is high, because parents cannot afford the expense of education easily. Hence, a new educational policy has to be made by government officers for poor students, so that their problems of education can be solved. One way of doing this is to build schools, where students are allowed to study in evening time, and where books having basic knowledge about core subjects such as English, Mathematics, Science, Urdu and Islam are taught by trained teachers.
3. LACK OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH:- Thirdly, the problem that the process of curriculum development faces in Pakistan is improper academic research for writing school textbooks. Haider points out those experts sitting in the curriculum development boards use materials of their own choice for instruction in schools. He says that most of the times the chosen content is not up to the mark. While going through textbooks approved by several board systems in the country, it becomes clear that no suitable research/evaluation system is created to revise curriculum. For example, in computer books of Class 9th, students still learn serial and parallel ports. However, it is noted that all electronic devices created in present day are connected with computers by USB port.
4. ABSENCE OF SCHOOL TEACHERS’ INVOLVEMENT:- Fourthly, it is seen that the academic experience of teachers from different schools is also not considered in designing and revising school curriculum. Daniel Tanner and Laurel N. Tanner in their book, “Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice,” suggest that without intelligent participation of school teachers, meaningful curriculum development will not be achieved. Tanner and Tanner say that teachers, who are involved in bringing out educational change, accept and adopt the new ideas more quickly than those teachers who are not involved in carrying out change. Useful evidence suggests that in countries where well-educated teachers were not involved in the curriculum development process, they did not accept new changes in school textbooks.
RESULT OF WEAK ACADEMIC SKILLS OF RESEARCHERS:-
With lack of academic skills in researchers responsible for designing curriculum for schools, the most important feature of curriculum, i.e. content suffers a lot. Students follow rote-learning process, because the content of their books does not match to their educational skills. In order to make students problem-solvers, Shabbir argues that our books must contain questions that relate to problems we face in our daily life. By answering those questions, students will learn to solve issues in difficult situations. For example, while studying the concept of speed in science, students must be given questions related to real-life examples of speed such as speed of a car etc., so that they know the application of the
EAST’S CONTRIBUTION TO SOLVING CURRICULUM PROBLEMS
EAST has developed a curriculum that provides activity-based learning to students and gives problem-solving skills to them. For instance, our sciences books contain explore and project activities, where students are given a flavor of using scientific knowledge in their routine life.
AIOU CODE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 B.ED 8603 AUTUMN 2016
Q.3 WHAT ARE VARIOUS FOUNDATION OF CURRICULUM? HOW DOES CULTURE AND SOCIETY INFLUENCE CURRICULUM? JUSTIFY YOUR VIEWPOINT WITH EXAMPLES. (20)
Foundations of Curriculum Foundations are the forces that influence the minds of curriculum developers. In this way they affect the content and structure of the curriculum. The curriculum reflects the society and culture of a country and this is the desire of a society that their children should learn the habits, ideas, attitudes and skills of the adult society and culture and educational institutional are the proper way to impart these skill. This duty of teacher and school to discipline the young of the society and provide them the set of experiences in the form of curriculum. The needs, knowledge and information of the society provide foundation in the formation of curriculum
PHILOSOPHICAL/ IDEOLOGICAL FOUNDATION:-
It is concerned with beliefs. What is real — ONTOLOGY
What is true — EPISTEMOLOGY
What is good — AXIOLOGY
Philosophy means the love of wisdom, it search for truth, not simple truth, It search for eternal truth, reality and general principles of life. Curriculum help in the practical use of knowledge in real life situations and understanding realities and ideas of life and this world that why curriculum is called the dynamic side of philosophy.
Curriculum is used for the modification of the behavior of the students and philosophy help in the process of finding new ways and basis for teachers and curriculum planner to modify their behavior.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 PHILOSOPHICAL IMPLICATION ON CURRICULUM
PHILOSOPHICAL/ IDEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS ON CURRICULUM
Philosophy and ideology has direct effect in curriculum planning because it guides the curriculum planner in the selection of the objectives and. As it provides guidelines in the selection of objectives, Learning experiences and content of the curriculum, and how to evaluate the curriculum, learning experiences and achievements of the students.
Psychological foundation is based on the individual differences, every student has its own unique personality and they have differences in their leering and skills. They are different in nature so they can’t be treated alike in teaching learning process, some may be fast learner while other slow. Therefore the curriculum should be based on the above facts, and it should be design to support the capacity and potentialities of all the students.
SOCIO CULTURAL FOUNDATION:-
According to Murray print (1993). The society and culture exercise massive powers on the formation curriculum and the reason behind that it was society who created schooling to safeguard the survival of their cultural heritage, and survival of their species. The purpose of curriculum planner and developers to translate traditional norms, philosophies, ethics, knowledge and attitudes in the objectives of curriculum, the content, learning processes and the evaluation of elements of the curriculum.
1. Role of curriculum in achievements of nations.
2. Guides future plans
3. Factors that influence development of nation e.g. unity
4. Eliminates the useless traditions.
ROLE OF THE HISTORY OF CURRICULUM IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUM:-
History of the curriculum plays a very important role in the development of the nation. It takes long and tedious time to formulate a good curriculum which represents the need of the society and the experiences of the past. The history of the curriculum tell the curriculum planner how to develop and modify the curriculum, what to teach and what should be the core material of the subjects, what objectives they want to achieve through the curriculum.
HISTORY HELPS IN THE ELIMINATIONS OF USELESS TRADITIONS:-
The history of education tells the curriculum developer what not to include in the curriculum. What of lessons can bring no good to the curriculum and what type of contents material are good for the teaching learning process, so history of the curriculum eliminate all those useless traditions from the modern curriculum and help the developer to incorporate what is needed for the curriculum. According to Ghazali, there are four categories of Knowledge;
4. Preachers Curriculum: Ghazali strongly criticizes the curriculum of his time. He raises the basic question of criteria for selection of subject matter for curriculum. He studied the various curriculums in his times and reached the following conclusions:
• More time is spent on religious education and worldly education is completely ignores.
• Worldly education is equally important.
• While teaching religious education, a great number of differences arise among the teachers, which result in mudslinging on each other
METHODS OF TEACHING AND TECHNIQUES:- AGAISNT AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016
Ghazali has recommended the following teaching methods and techniques, which are based on psychological principles. These methods and techniques are widely used and educators all over the world agree with their usefulness and today they are the foundation of curriculum development process.
• Teaching of lessons to be based on previous knowledge and experience of the students.
• Teachers should simplify the difficult concepts by stories, tales etc. otherwise his teaching will not be effective
MOVE FROM SIMPLE TO COMPLEX:-
This is a very important principle of today curriculum which was presented by Ghazali at those times. History of curriculum laid down the basic foundation of curriculum development
Ghazali stresses the importance of planning and advises that teachers should do his preparation before teaching to make it effective
ABILITIES OF STUDENTS:-
Ghazali stresses that while teaching the abilities of students should be kept in mind. Concepts, which are above the mental level of the students, will not make the teaching effective. Today in modern curriculum teachers are asked to keep in mind the individual differences.
Economical Foundations It focuses on:-
• Job or market oriented curriculum
• Skill learning
The economical foundation of curriculum gives importance to the vocational aspect of the curriculum. The economic condition of a nation or a society guide the curriculum of the country, because the stakeholder of the education wants to employ such a curriculum which help them to build their economy and the people have better jobs when they finish their schooling. Here are some economical factor which influence the curriculum development process
1:- ALLOCATION OF FUNDS:-
The financial condition of a country reflects its curriculum because without proper funding one can’t achieve the outcome of a good curriculum. It is the financial aspect of a country which guide them to adopt which type of curriculum, for example activity base or learner center curriculum need more money in the process of the implementation of the curriculum then subject matter curriculum
LACK OF SKILLED MANPOWER:-
The lack of skilled manpower due to financial restrains, without proper financial support it is hard to train the people to support the teaching learning process. Only through proper funding and the establishment of training institutions for teachers and support staff.
LACK OF LABS DUE TO FINANCIAL PROBLEMS:-
The lack of labs and libraries also affect the curriculum development process because without proper computer labs in cities and villages one can’t implement computer education curriculum all over the country. In the same way without proper libraries in all school one can’t implement a curriculum which needs supporting or reference books.
HOW DOES CULTURE AND SOCIETY INFLUENCE CURRICULUM? FOR AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016
First, this line of thinking assumes that racial or ethnic history, in conjunction with cultural traditions, is an already-known entity among the parents of school-aged children, wrongly presuming that all families have had access to a certain level of education and have been given access to this information. Given that there are indeed families who have not had the privilege of an adequate education that informs them of the rich history that exists in relation to their race or ethnicity, the banning of ethnic studies in schools only further oppresses these populations.
Secondly, what this thinking does not recognize is that schools can act as spaces in which students’ cultural identities are shaped as well. Separating a student’s racial or ethnic history from school curricula sends the wrong messages: that it is not worthy of being studied in a school setting, or that it is inherently separate from US history, both of which are ultimately debilitating for the students whose racial or ethnic histories are being erased. Including racial or ethnic histories into social studies lesson plans or integrating culture into project-based learning plans can be beneficial both for the student who has little knowledge of their own racial or ethnic history and for the student who knows plenty. For students who are just learning about their own racial or ethnic history, the inclusion of lessons that pertain specifically to their own racial or ethnic history will make them feel as though their past experiences are valid and valuable to the classroom as a whole. For students who are already knowledgeable about their own racial or ethnic history, the opportunities that they will have to contribute during lesson plans that relate to their own cultural traditions or history will make them feel important in knowing that they are aiding in the creation of knowledge in the classroom. Quite the opposite of creating divisions, the inclusion of culture in school curricula will create a space in which there will be mutual understanding and appreciation for different cultures. The current ban only furthers marginalization.
The banning of ethnic studies from schools brings into question the role of education. What is the purpose of schooling? Is it solely meant to create a competent future workforce? Should the focus be solely to have children reach proficiency in certain key subject areas, as determined by standardized testing, or are we looking for education to provide children with a holistic set of skills? I always thought that empowerment was one of the most valuable products of education.