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Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8604 autumn 2016 research methods in education. Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8604 autumn 2016 for B.Ed. student is now completely ready for you. Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8604 autumn 2016 research methods in education has five questions and we have provided you the solution of each question in details. The google tags we used here as under:- aiou solved assignment code 8604, aiou solved assignment 1 code 8604 autumn 2016, aiou solved assignment 1 code 8604 spring 2017, solved assignment 1 code 8604 autumn 2016, code 8604 aiou solved assignment 1 autumn 2016, B.Ed. code 8604 aiou solved assignment autumn 2016, autumn 2016 aiou solved assignment code 8604.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8604 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 1
Q.1 What are Sources of Knowledge? Define scientific method and describe its different steps. (20)
SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE:-
Knowledge is power if we know. But do we know the different sources of knowledge? As we are exploring about mind, its good to know about these different sources of knowledge. Inspiration, revelation, insight, intuition, ecstasy, divine sight and eternal bliss are the seven planes of knowledge. There are four sources of knowledge, viz., instinct, reason, intuition and super-intuition or Atma-Juana (Self Realization).
When an ant crawls in your right arm, the left arm automatically moves towards the right arm to drive away the ant. The mind does not reason there. When you see a scorpion in front of your leg, you withdraw your leg automatically. This is termed instinctive or automatic movement. As you cross a street, how instinctively you move your body to save yourself from the cars! Instinct is found in animals and birds. In birds, the ego does not interfere with the free divine flow and divine play. Hence the work done by them through their instincts is more perfect than that done by human beings. Have you not noticed the excellent work done by birds in their building of wonderful nests?
REASON:- Reason is higher than instinct and is found only in human beings. It collects facts, generalizes, reasons out from cause to effect, from effect to cause, from premises to conclusions, from propositions to proofs. It concludes, decides and comes to judgment. It takes you safely to the door of intuition and leaves you there. Belief, reasoning, knowledge and faith are the four important psychic processes. First you have belief in a doctor. You go to him for diagnosis and treatment. He makes a thorough examination and then prescribes certain medicines. You take them. You reason out: Such and such is the disease. The doctor has given me Iron and Iodide. Iron will improve my blood. The Iodide will stimulate the lymphatics and absorb the exudation and growth in the liver. So I should take it. Then the disease is cured, by a course of these drugs, in a month. Then you get knowledge of and perfect faith in the efficacy of the medicine and the proficiency of the doctor. Then you recommend to your friends this doctor and his drugs.
Intuition is spiritual experience. Intuition is the immediate knowledge of the Absolute, obtained through the eye of wisdom, as opposed to the knowledge of the external objects derived through the exercise of the senses and the intellect. There is direct perception of truth or immediate knowledge. You know things by a flash. Intuition transcends reason, but does not contradict it. Intellect takes a man to the door of intuition and returns back. Spiritual flashes and glimpses of truth come through intuition. Inspiration, revelation, spiritual insight come through intuition. The mind and the senses require time and space to function, but the Reality which is beyond this temporal, spatial and causal order of things, can only be grasped and apprehended by intuition. Intuition is beyond relativity.
Self-realization (Atma-Jnana) means knowledge of the self or soul. The reason the term ‘realization’ is used instead of ‘knowledge’ is that jnana refers to knowledge of self based on experience, not mere intellectual knowledge.” Atma-Jnana, literally “knowledge of the soul or supreme spirit”. Atmadnana is above intuition. It is the highest form of Knowledge. It is the only Reality.
The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions. Does this mean all scientists follow exactly this process? No. Some areas of science can be more easily tested than others. For example, scientists studying how stars change as they age or how dinosaurs digested their food cannot fast-forward a star’s life by a million years or run medical exams on feeding dinosaurs to test their hypotheses. When direct experimentation is not possible, scientists modify the scientific method. In fact, there are probably as many versions of the scientific method as there are scientists! But even when modified, the goal remains the same: to discover cause and effect relationships by asking questions, carefully gathering and examining the evidence, and seeing if all the available information can be combined in to a logical answer.
Even though we show the scientific method as a series of steps, keep in mind that new information or thinking might cause a scientist to back up and repeat steps at any point during the process. A process like the scientific method that involves such backing up and repeating is called an iterative process. Whether you are doing a science fair project, a classroom science activity, independent research, or any other hands-on science inquiry understanding the steps of the scientific method will help you focus your scientific question and work through your observations and data to answer the question as well as possible.
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THE STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD:-
The steps of the scientific method were developed over millennia, since the time of the ancient Greek and Persian philosophers.
The starting point of most new research is to formulate a general question about an area of research and begin the process of defining it. This initial question can be very broad, as the later research, observation and narrowing down will hone it into a testable hypothesis.
Eventually, the researcher will arrive at one fundamental hypothesis around which the experiment can be designed.
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DESIGNING THE EXPERIMENT:-
This stage of the scientific method involves designing the steps that will test and evaluate the hypothesis, manipulating one or more variables to generate analyzable data. The experiment should be designed with later statistical tests in mind, by making sure that the experiment has controls and a large enough sample group to provide statistically valid results.
This is the midpoint of the steps of the scientific method and involves observing and recording the results of the research, gathering the findings into raw data. The observation stage involves looking at what effect the manipulated variables have upon the subject, and recording the results.
ANALYSIS:- the scope of the research begins to broaden again, as statistical analyses are performed on the data, and it is organized into an understandable form. The answers given by this step allow the further widening of the research, revealing some trends and answers to the initial questions.
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CONCLUSIONS AND PUBLISHING:- This stage is where, technically, the hypothesis is stated as proved or disproved. However, the bulk of research is never as clear-cut as that, and so it is necessary to filter the results and state what happened and why. This stage is where interesting results can be earmarked for further research and adaptation of the initial hypothesis.
Even if the hypothesis was incorrect, maybe the experiment had a flaw in its design or implementation. There may be trends that, whilst not statistically significant, lead to further research and refinement of the process.
The results are usually published and shared with the scientific community, allowing verification of the findings and allowing others to continue research into other areas.
CYCLES:- This is not the final stage of the steps of the scientific method, as it generates data and ideas to recycle into the first stage. The initial and wider research area can again be addressed, with this research one of the many individual pieces answering the whole question. Building up understanding of a large area of research, by gradually building up a picture, is the true path of scientific advancement. One great example is to look at the work of 1.1 Thomson, who gradually inched towards his ultimate answer.
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Q.2 DISCUSS THE CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. ALSO EXAMINE THE NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH IN EDUCATION. (20)
Answer: Concept of Educational Research: Educational research refers to a variety of methods, in which individuals evaluate different aspects of education including: “student learning, teaching methods, teacher training, and classroom dynamics”.
Educational researchers have come to the consensus that educational research must be conducted in a rigorous and systematic way, although what this implies is often debated. There are a variety of disciplines which are each present to some degree in educational research. These include psychology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy. The overlap in disciplines creates a broad range from which methodology can be drawn. The findings of educational research also need to be interpreted within the context in which they were discovered as they may not be applicable in every time or place.
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THE NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH IN EDUCATION:- Finding reasons why research is important may seem like a no-brainer, but many would rather avoid getting involved in research. The lazy, if not mentally drained, student could say, “Not again.” And a disinterested academic could just be doing it for promotion purposes. Yet, for those who like to learn -whether or not they are members of a learning institution – doing research is not just an imperative, but a need. What reasons could drive one to appreciate research and engage in doing it?
1. A TOOL FOR BUILDING KNOWLEDGE, EFFICIENT LEARNING, BUSINESS SUCCESS, AND LOB SEARCH:- Research is required not just for students and academics, but for all professionals. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online. For those looking for a job, research is likewise a necessity.
Among professionals and scribes, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know about or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. The Brain Research Trust acknowledges the importance of research. Undoubtedly, it is crucial to finding possible cures for diseases, as well as how to prevent them. Thus, research becomes a must to ascertain if one’s ideas are supported by previous studies or if these ideas still need proof to be considered as knowledge. An example of this is the 2016 study of several psychologists who examined how sleep affects memory reactivation. In “Relearn Faster and Retain Longer: Along With Practice, Sleep Makes Perfect”, they “found that interleaving sleep between learning sessions not only reduced the amount of practice needed by half but also ensured much better long-term retention. Sleeping after learning is definitely a good strategy, but sleeping between two learning sessions is a better strategy.” This study supports the fact that: “Both repeated practice and sleep improve long-term retention of information”. Their findings also emphasize how highly important sleep is to healthy brain function.
2. MEANS TO UNDERSTAND VARIOUS ISSUES:- Television shows and movies ooze with research – both on the part of the writer(s) and the actors. Though there are hosts who rely on their researchers, there are also those who exert effort to do their own research. This helps them get information that hired researchers missed, build a good rapport with the interviewee, and conduct a good interview in the process. For their part, some film and TV actors would take time to interview detectives, boxers, scientists, business people, criminals, and teachers, among others. Others would even immerse themselves in situations that would make them understand social and personal issues like living behind bars or in a drug rehabilitation center. Many would read literature, biographies, or journals to have a better view or context of the story.
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As what Terry Freedman says in “The Importance of Research for ICT Teachers” (2011): “Research can shed light on issues we didn’t even know existed, and can raise questions we hadn’t realized even needed asking.” Thus, almost all writers of imaginary and non-fictive tales also do research because doing so helps them create a good story and/or achieve strong credibility as an academic.
3. A WAY TO PROVE LIES AND TO SUPPORT TRUTHS:- Ever experienced feeling that your mate is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook that and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring detectives to do the work. What does research have to do with that situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs contributes in either making a relationship work or in breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is not simply a trust issue, but a right to find out the truth – unless one’s intimate partner has already admitted being polyamorous even before the relationship started. When s/he dislikes answering relationship-related questions, including her/his whereabouts, it is better to see that as a red flag and take baby steps to save yourself from what could become a more serious emotional mess later.
Scientists also deal with research to test the validity and reliability of their claims or those of other scientists’. Their integrity and competence depend on the quality – and not just quantity – of their research. Nonetheless, not everything scientists come up with get accepted or learned by everyone, especially when factors like religion, state suppression, and access to resources and social services (e.g., education and adequate health programs) either feed the poor majority with lies or deter them from knowing truths to preserve the status quo.
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4. A SEED TO LOVE READING, WRITING, ANALYZING, AND SHARING VALUABLE INFORMATION:- Research entails both reading and writing. These two literacy functions help enable computation and comprehension. Without these skills, it is less likely for anyone to appreciate and get involved in research. Reading opens the mind to a vast horizon of knowledge, while writing helps a reader use her/his own perspective and transform this into a more concrete idea that s/he understands. Apart from reading and writing, listening and speaking are also integral in conducting research. Interviews, attending knowledge-generating events, and casual talks with anyone certainly aid in formulating research topics. They can also facilitate the critical thinking process. Listening to experts discuss the merits of their studies helps the listener to analyze a certain issue and write about such analysis.
With the wide array of ideas available, scholars and non-scholars involved in research are able to share information with a larger audience. Some view this process as ego-boosting, while others see it as a means to stimulate interest and encourage further studies about certain issues or situations. As literacy is integral in improving a person’s social and economic mobility and in increasing awareness, research then hones necessary basic life skills and makes learning a life-long endeavor.
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5. NOURISHMENT AND EXERCISE FOR THE MIND:- Curiosity may kill not just the cat, but the human as well. Yet, it is the same curiosity that fuels the mind to seek for answers. The College Admissions Partners (n.d.) notes how scientific research in particular “helps students develop critical reasoning skills…helpful for any field of higher education…” Such search or the thinking process is food for the brain, allowing creativity and logic to remain active. It also helps prevent mental illnesses like Alzheimer’s. Indeed, research and doing research encourage people to explore possibilities, to understand existing issues, and to disclose truths and fabricated ones. Without research, technological advancement and other developments could have remained a fantasy. Reading, writing, observing, analyzing, and interacting with others facilitate an inquisitive mind’s quest for knowledge and efficient learning. Research serves as an instrument to achieve that goal.
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