AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8605 AUTUMN 2016 B.Ed.
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Educational Leadership and Management (8605) Semester: Autumn, 2016 Level: B.Ed (1.5 Year)
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT CODE 8605
Q.1: DEFINE POSDCORB. ALSO DISCUSS ITS IMPORTANCE IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT?
POSDCORB is an acronym widely used in the field of Management and Public Administration that reflects the classic view of administrative management. Largely drawn from the work of French industrialist Henri Fayol, it first appeared in a 1937 staff paper by Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick written for the Brownlow Committee. The acronym stands for steps in the administrative process:- Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Co-Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting. These responsibilities can be summarized into “POSDCORB”. The acronym “”POSDCORB” stands for following aspects of administration. They are:-
The strengths of “POSDCORB” lies in the fact that it can be the starting point to analyze the management functions in a structured way. The structure also helps to analyze the management activities. Now, let us have a look at each and every management responsibilities.
PLANNING & ORGANIZING:-
Various Types of Planning includes Business Plan, Event Planning, Financial Plan, Marketing Plan and Strategic Planning.
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Marketing Plan helps us understand who are the customers and their key characteristics, needs and wants, their expectation of our product, their special requirements and perceptions, their perspective about our organization, products or services and finally the buying intentions of the customer.
A strategic plan is an internal document for internal guidance within an organization. In most cases, strategic plan is not shared with audience outside the organization. Each department in the organization makes sure that their goals are aligned with the strategic plan.
A business plan is meant for possible investors outside the organization. A business plan presents current financial condition, future investment plans, revenues and growth projection to lure investors. It can also be considered as a branding exercise.
Event planning deals with planning, budgeting, scheduling, developing a theme and coordinating a convention or a party to make it a grant success.
Financial Planning helps a firm to determine the future financial needs or goals and ways to achieve them. It helps a firm to decide on investments and activities which needs to be taken up under various financial circumstances, keeping in mind short term and long term financial plan.
Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the business. Main objective is to create a clear cut division and coordination of tasks, information flow management inside an organization. An organizational structure should clearly define the division of labor, delegation of authority and span of control.
Delegation of authority can be achieved using one of the following principle. Exception principle – This principle talks about a manager concentrating on tasks which needs immediate attention (Considerable deviation from the planned) and let his subordinates handle routine tasks. Scalar chain of command – Talks about a shorter chain of command for a better top down communication. Decentralization – Delegating of authority to the lower levels in an organization. Parity principle – Talks about how a manager should keep a balance between responsibility and authority Depart-mentation
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DEPART-MENTATION:-is the process of clubbing multiple jobs and assign it to manager for better planning, coordination and control.
SPAN OF CONTROL:-
The span of control states the number of employees a manager can supervise, typically 5-6 employees. Based on the level of complexity and priority of the project, the span of control can be increased.
Main objective of Staffing is to manage various job profiles created by organizing. Staffing helps to find the gap between available and required manpower. Staffing is not one time activity. As per organization growth, new positions should be identified and filled.
AIOU ASSIGNMENT CODE 8605 SOLVED AUTUMN 2016
Directing is a continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in specific and general orders and instructions and serving as the leader of the enterprise. Directing includes Communicating, Leading and Motivating.
Control is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and directing. It helps us to keep tab on the day to day activities, analyze the gaps and and rectify/minimize them, so that organizational objectives are met. Usually organizational control proceed establish standards to measure performance, compare the results with stated goals and take corrective actions.
A document containing information organized in a narrative, graphic, or tabular form, prepared on ad hoc, periodic, recurring, regular, or as required basis. Reports may refer to specific periods, events, occurrences, or subjects, and may be communicated or presented in oral or written form.
Budgeting for a business is a process. It is the process of preparing a detailed statement of financial results that are expected for a given time period in the future. There are two keywords in that statement. The first keyword is “expected.” Expected means something that is likely to happen. The second keyword is “future” which is a period in the time to come. So, budgeting is the process of preparing a detailed statement of financial results that are likely to happen in a period in a time to come.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8605 AUTUMN 2016 Q # 2
Q.2: WRITE NOTES ON FOLLOWING:-
a) CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Definition of Conflict Management Conflict management is the practice of being able to identify and handle conflicts sensibly, fairly, and efficiently. Since conflicts in a business are a natural part of the workplace, it is important that there are people who understand conflicts and know how to resolve them. This is important in today’s market more than ever. Everyone is striving to show how valuable they are to the company they work for and at times, this can lead to disputes with other members of the team. Conflict Management Styles
Conflicts happen. How an employee responds and resolves conflict will limit or enable that employee’s success. Here are five conflict styles that a manager will follow according to Kenneth W. Thomas and Ralph H. Kilmann:
An accommodating manager is one who cooperates to a high degree. This may be at the manager’s own expense and actually work against that manager’s own goals, objectives, and desired outcomes. This approach is effective when the other person is the expert or has a better solution.
AVOIDING:- an issue is one way a manager might attempt to resolve conflict. This type of conflict style does not help the other staff members reach their goals and does not help the manager who is avoiding the issue and cannot assertively pursue his or her own goals. However, this works well when the issue is trivial or when the manager has no chance of winning.
COLLABORATING:- managers become partners or pair up with each other to achieve both of their goals in this style. This is how managers break free of the win-lose paradigm and seek the win-win. This can be effective for complex scenarios where managers need to find a novel solution.
COMPETING:- This is the win-lose approach. A manager is acting in a very assertive way to achieve his or her own goals without seeking to cooperate with other employees, and it may be at the expense of those other employees. This approach may be appropriate for emergencies when time is of the essence.
COMPROMISING:- This is the lose-lose scenario where neither person or manager really achieves what they want. This requires a moderate level of assertiveness and cooperation. It may be appropriate for scenarios where you need a temporary solution or where both sides have equally important goals.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8605 AUTUMN 2016
B) INTEGRATED PLANNING ANSWER:
Integrated Business Planning is a planning process that integrates across two or more functions in a business or government entity referred to as an enterprise to maximize financial value. The specific functional areas in a company as well as the industry domain associated with the company defines the specific type of IBP process. Examples of IBP processes are:-
• Sales and Operations Planning
• Healthcare Analytics
• Strategic Corporate Performance Management
• Planning and scheduling across multiple plants in a factory The key requirement for IBP is that two or more functional process areas must be involved and maximizing (optimizing) of financial value should be done. Corporate executives, business unit heads and planning managers use IBP to evaluate plans and activities based on the economic impact of each consideration.
BRIDGING CORPORATE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND S&OP:- There has been a lot of focus on Integrated Business Planning in the context of Sales and Operations Planning. Gartner refers to a 5-stage S&OP Maturity model wherein IBP is referred to as the Phased 4 & 5. Integrated Business Planning however is broader than S&OP. It is an approach that that combine enterprise performance management (EPM) and sales and operations planning (S&OP) to provide incremental capabilities that neither provides individually. In so doing, IBP platforms address long-standing challenges that financial and operational professionals have struggled to overcome. The result: opportunities for step change improvements to how manufacturers plan, manage and govern their business.
AIOU CODE 8605 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2016
COMPONENTS:- Integrated Business Planning requires the following capabilities to be enabled:: A) ENTERPRISE MODEL:-
• Ability to create a demand chain model
• Ability to create a supply chain model
• Ability to create a finance chain model
B) INTEGRATED PLANNING
• Ability to create a plan across multiple functions
• Ability to create predictive and collaborative plans
C) ENTERPRISE OPTIMIZATION
• Ability to create optimized plans across multiple constraints
• Ability to create financial integration across optimization
AUTUMN 2016 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8605
APPLICATIONS:- IBP has been used to model and integrate the planning efforts in a number of applications, including:-
• Product profitability
• Customer profitability
• Capital expenditures
• Manufacturing operations
• Supply chain
• Business processes (human and information-based)
• Business policy
• Market demand curves
• Competitive strategy All of the above can be summarized as Enterprise Optimization use cases.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8605 AUTUMN 2016 Q # 3
Q.3: DISCUSS WHETHER MANAGEMENT IS SCIENCE OR ARTS, STRENGTHENS YOUR POINT OF VIEW WITH THE HELP OF SUITABLE EXAMPLES?
IS MANAGEMENT A SCIENCE OR AN ART?
I believe that management can be studied and refined to a science. You can study what other great managers do, you can read the latest “how to” book to polish your skills and learn how to manage or handle a particular situation. Leadership on the other hand is a very different matter. A friend of mine and I were talking the other day about Managers vs. Leaders and he made what I thought was quite a profound statement. “Managers take a situation and find a way to fix the problem, Leaders see the situation before it ever becomes a problem.”
True Leadership is an art. One that cannot be taught or studied, but only learned. Through mistakes as a “manager” and years of trial and error, you discover what your talents are and what you have to offer your team as well as your peers. You discover what your team needs from you to become successful and you find a way to take them there. A manager will use their tried and true methods with each new set of employees they encounter, but a Leader will never steer his people to greatness the same way twice. Management can be considered as both science as well as an art.
Management is Science because of several reasons like – it has universally accepted principles, it has cause and effect relationship etc., and at the same time it is art because it requires perfection through practice, practical knowledge, creativity, personal skills etc.
Management is both an art and a science. Management combines features of both science as well as art. It is considered as a science because it has an organized body of knowledge which contains certain universal truth. It is called an art because managing requires certain skills which are personal possessions of managers. Science provides the knowledge & art deals with the application of knowledge and skills. A manager to be successful in his profession must acquire the knowledge of science & the art of applying it. Therefore management is a judicious blend of science as well as an art because it proves the principles and the way these principles are applied is a matter of art. Science teaches to ‘know’ and art teaches to ‘do’. E.g. A person cannot become a good singer unless he has knowledge about various ragas & he also applies his personal skill in the art of singing. Same way it is not sufficient for manager to first know the principles but he must also apply them in solving various managerial problems that is why, science and art are not mutually exclusive but they are complementary to each other (like tea and biscuit, bread and butter etc.).
The old saying that “Manager are Born” has been rejected in favor of “Managers are Made”. It has been aptly remarked that management is the oldest of art and youngest of science. To conclude, we can say that science is the root and art is the fruit.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8605 AUTUMN 2016 MANAGEMENT AS SCIENCE
MANAGEMENT AS SCIENCE:- Science is a systematic body of knowledge pertaining to a specific field of study that contains general facts which explains a phenomenon. It establishes cause and effect relationship between two or more variables and underlines the principles governing their relationship. These principles are developed through scientific method of observation and verification through testing. Science is characterized by following main features:
1. Universally acceptance principles—scientific principles represents basic truth about a particular field of enquiry. These principles may be applied in all situations, at all time & at all places. E.g. — law of gravitation which can be applied in all countries irrespective of the time. Management also contains some fundamental principles which can be applied universally like the Principle of Unity of Command i.e. one man, one boss. This principle is applicable to all type of organization — business or non-business.
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2. Experimentation & Observation — scientific principles are derived through scientific investigation & researching i.e. they are based on logic. E.g. the principle that earth goes round the sun has been scientifically proved. Management principles are also based on scientific enquiry & observation and not only on the opinion of Henry Fayol. They have been developed through experiments & practical experiences of large no. of managers. E.g. it is observed that fair remuneration to personal helps in creating a satisfied work force.
3. Cause & Effect Relationship — Principles of science lay down cause and effect relationship between various variables. E.g. when metals are heated, they are expanded. The cause is heating & result is expansion. The same is true for management, therefore it also establishes cause and effect relationship. E.g. lack of parity (balance) between authority & responsibility will lead to ineffectiveness. If you know the cause i.e. lack of balance, the effect can be ascertained easily i.e. in effectiveness. Similarly if workers are given bonuses, fair wages they will work hard but when not treated in fair and just manner, reduces productivity of organization.
4. Test of Validity & Predictability — Validity of scientific principles can be tested at any time or any number of times i.e. they stand the test of time. Each time these tests will give same result. Moreover future events can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by using scientific principles. E.g. H2 & 02 will always give H2O. Principles of management can also be tested for validity. E.g. principle of unity of command can be tested by comparing two persons —one having single boss and one having 2 bosses. The performance of 1st person will be better than 2nd. It cannot be denied that management has a systematic body of knowledge but it is not as ‘exact as that of other physical sciences like biology, physics, and chemistry etc. The main reason for the inexactness of science of management is that it deals with human beings and it is very difficult to predict their behavior accurately. Since it is a social process, therefore it falls in the area of social sciences. It is a flexible science & that is why its theories and principles may produce different results at different times and therefore it is a behavior science. Ernest Dale has called it as a Soft Science.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8605 MANAGEMENT AS ART
MANAGEMENT AS ART:- Art implies application of knowledge & skill to trying about desired results. An art may be defined as personalized application of general theoretical principles for achieving best possible results. Art has the following characters —
1. Practical Knowledge: Every art requires practical knowledge therefore learning of theory is not sufficient. It is very important to know practical application of theoretical principles. E.g. to become a good painter, the person may not only be knowing different color and brushes but different designs, dimensions, situations etc. to use them appropriately. A manager can never be successful just by obtaining degree or diploma in management; he must have also know how to apply various principles in real situations by functioning in capacity of manager.
2. Personal Skill: Although theoretical base may be same for every artist, but each one has his own style and approach towards his job. That is why the level of success and quality of performance differs from one person to another. E.g. there are several qualified painters but M.F. Hussain is recognized for his style. Similarly management as an art is also personalized. Every manager has his own way of managing things based on his knowledge, experience and personality, that is why some managers are known as good managers (like Aditya Birla, Rahul Bajaj) whereas others as bad.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8605 AUTUMN 2016
3. Creativity: Every artist has an element of creativity in line. That is why he Aims at producing something that has never existed before which requires combination of intelligence & imagination. Management is also creative in nature like any other art. It combines human and non-human resources in useful way so as to achieve desired results. It tries to produce sweet music by combining chords in an efficient manner.
4. Perfection through practice: Practice makes a man perfect. Every artist becomes more and more proficient through constant practice. Similarly managers learn through an art of trial and error initially but application of management principles over the years makes them perfect in the job of managing. S. Goal-Oriented: Every art is result oriented as it seeks to achieve concrete results. In the same manner, management is also directed towards accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Managers use various resources like men, money, material, machinery & methods to promote growth of an organization. Thus, we can say that management is an art therefore it requires application of certain principles rather it is an art of highest order because it deals with molding the attitude and behavior of people at work towards desired goals. 6. Work by effectively. manager manage all problem in every environment so this is not science, it is an art that how he manage every problem of organization in every environment.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8605 AUTUMN 2016
MANAGEMENT AS BOTH SCIENCE AND ART:- Management is both an art and a science. The above mentioned points clearly reveals that management combines features of both science as well as art. It is considered as a science because it has an organized body of knowledge which contains certain universal truth. It is called an art because managing requires certain skills which are personal possessions of managers. Science provides the knowledge & art deals with the application of knowledge and skills. A manager to be successful in his profession must acquire the knowledge of science & the art of applying it. Therefore management is a judicious blend of science as well as an art because it proves the principles and the way these principles are applied is a matter of art. Science teaches to ‘know’ and art teaches to ‘do’. E.g. a person cannot become a good singer unless he has knowledge about various ragas & he also applies his personal skill in the art of singing. Same way it is not sufficient for manager to first know the principles but he must also apply them in solving various managerial problems that is why, science and art are not mutually exclusive but they are complementary to each other (like tea and biscuit, bread and butter etc.). The old saying that “Manager are Born” has been rejected in favor of “Managers are Made”. It has been aptly remarked that management is the oldest of art and youngest of science. To conclude, we can say that science is the root and art is the fruit.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8605 AUTUMN 2016 MANAGEMENT AS PROFESSION
MANAGEMENT AS PROFESSION:- A profession may be defined as an occupation that requires specialized knowledge and intensive academic preparations to which entry is regulated by a representative body. The essentials of a profession are: 1. Specialized Knowledge — A profession must have a systematic body of knowledge that can be used for development of professionals. Every professional must make deliberate efforts to acquire expertise in the principles and techniques. Similarly a manager must have devotion and involvement to acquire expertise in the science of management. 2. Formal Education & Training — There are no. of institutes and universities to impart education & training for a profession. No one can practice a profession without going through a prescribed course. Many institutes of management have been set up for imparting education and training. For example, a CA cannot audit the A/C’s unless he has acquired a degree or diploma for the same but no minimum qualifications and a course of study has been prescribed for managers by law. For example, MBA may be preferred but not necessary. 3. Social Obligations —Profession is a source of livelihood but professionals are primarily motivated by the desire to serve the society. Their actions are influenced by social norms and values. Similarly a manager is responsible not only to its owners but also to the society and therefore he is expected to provide quality goods at reasonable prices to the society. 4. Code of Conduct — Members of a profession have to abide by a code of conduct which contains certain rules and regulations, norms of honesty, integrity and special ethics. A code of conduct is enforced by a representative association to ensure self-discipline among its members. Any member violating the code of conduct can be punished and his membership can be withdrawn. The AIMA has prescribed a code of conduct for managers but it has no right to take legal action against any manager who violates it. 5. Representative Association — For the regulation of profession, existence of a representative body is a must. For example, an institute of Charted Accountants of India establishes and administers standards of competence for the auditors but the AIMA however does not have any statuary powers to regulate the activities of managers. From above discussion, it is quite clear that management fulfills several essentials of a profession, even then it is not a full fledged profession because: – a. It does not restrict the entry in managerial jobs for account of one standard or other. b. No minimum qualifications have been prescribed for managers. c. No management association has the authority to grant a certificate of practice to various managers. d. All managers are supposed to abide by the code formulated by AIMA, e. Competent education and training facilities do not exist.. f. Managers are responsible to many groups such as shareholders, employees and society. A regulatory code may curtail their freedom. g. Managers are known by their performance and not mere degrees. h. The ultimate goal of business is to maximize profit and not social welfare. That is why Haymes has rightly remarked, “The slogan for management is becoming — ‘He who serves best, also profits mose.”
i think management is more of art than science.it is the accumulated knowledge which comprises science. Through exhaustive aquentence with management over the history it has added itself with knowledge. But when matter comes to practices of management it is purely art with help of knowledge available.
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