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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016
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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016 Q # 1
Q.1:- WHAT IS CURRICULUM CONTENT? HIGHLIGHT THE PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA FOR SELECTING THE CURRICULUM CONTENT. (20)
Curriculum Content Curriculum development is both a political and technical process. Given the importance of curriculum for society (i.e. from the point of view of its identity; development prospects; etc.), curriculum is a matter of public interest. Curriculum entails nevertheless technical aspects that are the responsibility of curriculum specialists (technicians). Curriculum specialists and specialized committees ought to work in synergy with the support of curriculum-specialized institutions. Curriculum processes should benefit from extensive capacity development and sharing, as well as from the participation of relevant education agents and stakeholders.
Currently, all jurisdictions2 have written curricula that are laid down in different curriculum documents. The clearest and most successful curricula are described in curriculum frameworks which set subject curricula/ syllabuses in a wider structure. However, some jurisdictions described their curricula mainly through learning materials, such as textbooks; teacher guides; assessment guides. This makes curriculum transparent to education agents and stakeholders: everybody can see what is intended and required in terms of curriculum provisions and learning results. However, for the sake of coherence and consistency, learning materials, such as textbooks, should be developed in line with the broader curriculum perspective that is usually defined in a curriculum framework.
Curriculum content is another main lever of education quality. The knowledge, skills and attitudes imparted by learning areas/subjects, cross-cutting approaches and extra-curricular activities is a main source of systematic and comprehensive learning. While learners may learn from many other different sources (especially in an informal way from the Media and Internet), curriculum’s advantages in structuring and sequencing learning represents a major asset for sustainable acquisitions that ought to be well exploited and capitalized on. Given the many perspectives on learning and achievement that may exist in a society, defining the appropriate content of the curriculum is very often a source of tensions. However, it may also become an occasion for working together on consensus building.
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PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA FOR SELECTING THE CURRICULUM CONTENT
The criteria below can be utilized in the selection of subject matter for micro curriculum, and for the content, subjects needed for the curricular program or course, of the macro curriculum.
To help learners attain maximum self-sufficiency at the most economical manner is the main guiding principle for subject matter or content selection (Scheffler, 1970) as cited by Bilbao et al., (2008). Economy of learning refers to less teaching effort and less use of educational resources; but students gain more results. They are able to cope up with the learning outcomes effectively. This means that students should be given chance to experiment, observe, and do field study. This allows them to learn independently. With this principle in mind, I suggest that for a high school curriculum or preparatory year, there should be a one day independent learning activity each week. However, this should be carefully planned by the teacher. When the students return, they should present outputs from the activity.
The subject matter or content is significant if it is selected and organized for the development of learning activities, skills, processes, and attitude. It also develops the three domains of learning namely the cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills, and considers the cultural aspects of the learners. Particularly, if your students come from different cultural backgrounds and races, the subject matter must be culture-sensitive. In short, select a content or subject matter that can achieve the overall aim of the curriculum.
Validity refers to the authenticity of the subject matter or content you selected. Make sure that the topics are not obsolete. For example, do not include typewriting as a skill to be learned by college students. It should be about the computer or Information Technology (IT). Thus, there is a need to check regularly the subject matter or contents of the curriculum, and replace it if necessary. Do not wait for another 5 years in order to change it. Modern curriculum experts are after current trends, relevance and authenticity of the curriculum; otherwise, your school or country will be left behind.
This criterion is true to learner-centered curriculum. Students learn best if the subject matter is meaningful to them. It becomes meaningful if they are interested in it. But if the curriculum is subject-centered, teachers have no choice but to finish the pacing schedule religiously and teach only what is in the book. This may somehow explain why many fail in the subject.
Another criterion is the usefulness of the content or subject matter. Students think that a subject matter or some subjects are not important to them. They view it useless. As a result, they don’t study. Here are the questions that students often ask: Will I need the subject in my job? Will it give meaning to my life? Will it develop my potentials? Will it solve my problem? Will it be part of the test? Will I have a passing mark if I learn it? Students only value the subject matter or content if it is useful to them.
The subject matter or content must be within the schema of the learners. It should be within their experiences. Teachers should apply theories on psychology of learning in order to know how subjects are presented, sequenced, and organized to maximize the learning capacity of the students. Page 2 of 26
It means that the subject matter can be fully implemented. It should consider the real situation of the school, the government, and the society, in general. Students must learn within the allowable time and the use of resources available. Do not give them a topic that is impossible to finish. For example, you have only one week to finish the unit but then, the activities may take a month for the students to complete it. This is not feasible.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 2
Q.2 DESCRIBE THE STEPS INVOLVED IN THE CURRICULUM EVALUATION PROCESS. SUGGEST DIFFERENT MEASURES TO IMPROVE CURRICULUM EVALUATION PROCESS IN PAKISTAN. (20)
Steps Involved In the Curriculum Evaluation Process
1:- Specify the Objectives of the evaluation
PURPOSE:- The purpose statement should succinctly indicate the reason why the evaluation is being undertaken.
SCOPE:- The scope statement in essence should state what will be focussed on in the evaluation.
2. CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE EVALUATION DESIGN / METHOD:-
PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:- These are used when no control groups are available. In such cases a post test only, or pre-and post-tests, will be used to determine the outcomes of a program.
OUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:- These are used in cases where control groups are available but where subjects/cases cannot be assigned to groups on the basis of random selection.
3. IDENTIFY THE SOURCES OF INFORMATION / DATA:-
✓ The data / information needed for Evaluation of Curriculum may be collected from one are more of the following potential sources:
✓ Present students
✓ Ex-students (Alumni)
✓ Heads of institutions
✓ Curriculum Coordinators
✓ Officers of examining bodies
4. CONSTRUCT INSTRUMENTS FOR DATA COLLECTION:-
✓ Questionnaires containing fixed response, restricted response and or open ended questions.
✓ Interview schedules
✓ Observation schedules to be used during on site visits (Checklists and Rating Scales) Attitude scales
✓ Achievement Tests
5. SELECT OR DEVELOP STRATEGIES FOR DATA COLLECTION
✓ Mailing out the questionnaire.
✓ Administering the questionnaire in person.
✓ Conducting personal interviews.
✓ Making on site visits for observation. Observations have to be made In unobtrusive manner to the extent possible.
✓ Inspecting samples of the products of the students and publications of the institution. Following the procedures laid down for the experimental design chosen.
6. CONDUCT PILOT SCALE EVALUATION
✓ To provide a trial run of the data collection approach
✓ To test out the data-collection instrument
✓ To provide some pilot data to test out the data analysis techniques planned
✓ To give the evaluation team experience in working with the sample
7. CONDUCT LARGE-SCALE EVALUATION:-
During this stage the data collection plan drawn up in Step WILL BE IMPLEMENTED
8. ANALYZE THE DATA
✓ Quantitative data
✓ Qualitative data
✓ Methods of data analysis
✓ establishing validity & reliability
9. PREPARE REPORTS AND FEEDBACK TO DECISION MAKERS
✓ Written Report ✓ Outline of an Evaluation Report
✓ The evaluation report should be written in a style and language that will be easily understood by the audience.
✓ The contents, length and nature of the report is partly a matter for negotiation between evaluators & clients.
✓ Oral Report / Presentation to decision makers
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016 ABOUT IMPROVE CURRICULUM EVALUATION.
DIFFERENT MEASURES TO IMPROVE CURRICULUM EVALUATION PROCESS IN PAKISTAN:-
Universal primary education in Pakistan is contingent on several factors, such as the existence of cost-effective schools, better curricula, and an awareness among parents, especially in rural areas, of the importance of education. However, the single most important factor in getting children to complete primary school is improving the structure of Pakistan’s school system.
Currently, there exist many obstacles on the road to a smoothly functioning system. These include political interference, corruption, and over-centralization, a lack of school autonomy, underdeveloped managerial capacity and poor information systems.
However, there are five institutional reforms that can help improve Pakistan’s educational structure so that it can achieve the goal of universal primary education.
The first reform is the decentralization of decision-making, which improves education administration. Presently, Pakistan educational system is highly centralized even though it is widely understood that basic education is better provided in a system that is administered at the district and village level. A highly centralized system does not respond as effectively to local needs. The bureaucracy interferes with the flow of resources and information. It also means higher level administrators have less time to devote to important issues like program design, implementation, and monitoring.
This decentralization means governments must develop partnerships with communities, NGOs, and the private sector to delegate responsibility effectively in order to achieve universal primary education. A second step necessary for improving the system is greater autonomy for the schools. Currently, school principals have a limited decision-making capacity. In addition, schools do not have control over issues like curriculum, teacher appointment, discipline, and evaluation. There are virtually no opportunities for local staff development programs or resource mobilization. .
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016
By giving schools more independence, principals would have the authority to appoint personnel and determine crucial issues that affect the day-to-day affairs of schools. Principals, not upper-level bureaucrats, are in a better position to make these decisions since they deal with the daily realities of school life.
A third important reform is providing better support to, supervision of, and coordination of the school system at the district and provincial level. By making the district the key level for planning and management, state-level and central education bodies can focus more on policy-making, resource management and regulation.
One way to do this is by promoting good principals and teachers at the school level to enhance the institutional capacity of district level organizations. The lack of sufficient manpower is the most serious problem at the district and sub-district level.
A fourth necessary reform is to encourage decision-making be based on educational, not political, considerations. At present, politicians hand out teaching jobs as patronage appointments. Federal and provincial funds provided for education sometimes remain unused, especially in rural areas, since feudal landowners are opposed to educating “their” people.
The final necessary reform is to expand the information and research base of education in Pakistan. Effective management and administration of the education system depends on the quality of the information system. Without reliable information, decision-makers cannot improve education policy and programs at the national, district and school levels.
One way of collecting reliable information about the state of education is to conduct standardized testing that measures student performance against national curriculum goals. These can be used to compare learning achievement across schools, districts and regions over time.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 3
Q.3 DISCUSS THE CONCEPT OF EDUCATION FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT. COMPARE THE FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL APPROACHES TO EDUCATION FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN. (20)
The Concept Education for Rural Development The meaning of rural development has been the subject of much debate and little agreement. The definition of rural development varies from one point of view to the other. The definition or rural development may be centered on income criterion in which the concept is made to address the problem of rural poverty. Or it may be defined in sociological concept in which the rural poor represents a reservoir of untapped talent a target group that should be given the opportunity to enjoy the benefits of development through improved education, health and nutrition. This is one of the most important definitions of rural development as the provision of social infrastructures could provide the catalyst that would transform the rural areas.
Rural development may also be seen as an ideology and a practice. It may mean planned change by public agencies based outside the rural areas such as the national Government and International organization; It may also be the bringing of the countryside into an active state, as well as the transformation of the inferior nature of the country side into something more superior in terms of activities.
Rural development as the improvement in the living standard of the rural dwellers by engaging them in productive activities such as the establishment of rural industries that will increase their income. It is seen by these scholars as a means of raising the sustainable living of the rural poor by giving them the opportunity to develop their full potentials.
Rural development can be distinguished from agricultural development which it entails and transcends. In essence Rural Development may imply a broad based re-organization and mobilization of rural masses in order to enhance their capacity to cope effectively with the daily task of their lives and with changes consequent upon this. According to the World Bank Rural Development must be clearly designed to increase production. It recognizes that improved food supplies and nutrition, together with basic services, such as health and education, not only directly improve the physical well-being and quality of life of the rural poor, but can also indirectly enhance their productivity and their ability to contribute to the national economy.
Rural Development ensures the modernization of the rural society and the transition from its traditional isolation to integration with the national economy. It is concerned with increased agricultural production for urban and international markets. This is essential so as to generate foreign exchange, and to attract revenue to finance public and private consumption and investment. In order to encourage increased production rural development may offer a package of inputs and welfare services for the rural masses. Such inputs and welfare services include physical inputs (such as the provision of feeder roads, water and electrification), social inputs—(namely health and educational facilities) and institutional inputs such as credit facilities, agricultural research facilities, rural expansion services among others.
Formal Approaches to Education for Rural Development In Pakistan
Mindless urbanization of rural areas may not be conceived as rural development. Neither the creation of consumerism can be judged as rural development, nor can the provision of goods and services enjoyed by urban folk to the rural masses serve the desired purpose. Moreover centralized macro-perspectives will also not generate the desired results, since every village/region is a different entity and it is impossible to implement centrally planned and even well-conceived programmes uniformly in all the areas while ignoring their micro level variations. The bureaucratic and impersonal process of implementation of rural programm should therefore be discarded. Any development programme aiming at the transformation of rural societies should take into account the socio-economic aspects and the behavioral pattern of rural society. Any change aimed at improving efficiency and income of rural people should not attempt to sever their relationship from their social and cultural heritage.
At the same time the development model or programme should have the essence of horizontal movement and not vertical linearity in order to maintain the balance between economic and social aspects on the one hand and encourage participatory enthusiasm, in planning, implementation and execution of developmental efforts on the other. Thus any developmental effort has to be slow and gradual but persistent, so as to allow the rural people to absorb the spirit of change in the perspective of social harmony. The process of human resource development and the investments in infrastructure should move along these lines. For achieving the fore stated goals and purposes, a well thought out and carefully designed local institutional/organizational structure needs to be established. Under this set-up the institutions should think and plan locally and at the same time have an understanding of the outside world. This alone can promote both economic and non-economic factors (i.e. nutrition, health, education etc.) alike.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016 UNDER NON FORMAL APPROACHES TO EDUCATION FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT
NON-FORMAL APPROACHES TO EDUCATION FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN
Due to population explosion and swiftly increasing demand for education even developed countries are unable to overcome the prevailing challenges through formal system of education. Most of the developing countries are in miserable situation regarding level of education and literacy. Attacking poverty has become an international concern for placing in the paradigm of ‘education and learning for sustainable development’ in consideration of the reality that almost half of the world’s population live in poverty. Pakistan is the sixth populous country in the world and unfortunately, more than half of the population is living below the poverty line. Educated and well off urban population lives not so very differently from their counterparts in other countries of similar income range, or even of their counterparts in Western countries. However, the poor and rural inhabitants of Pakistan are being left behind (World Bank, 2002). Due to scarce resources and financial constraints developing countries are unable to cope with the drastic demand for education and consequently non-formal education (NFE) seems blessing to meet this challenge of poverty alleviation. Existing formal system of education especially in developing countries obviously cannot cope with the drastic demands of trained personnel. The demand for the trained personnel in Non-Formal Education as an alternative of formal education is being increased throughout the world. NFE consists of assortment of organized and semi organized activities operating outside the regular structure and routine of the formal system, aimed at serving a great variety of learning needs of different sub-group of population both young and old. NFE consists of assortment of organized and semi organized activity operating outside the regular structure and routine of the formal system, aimed at serving a great variety of learning needs of different sub-groups of population, both young and old. There are more than 9500 personnel involved in the human resource development through non-formal system of education in Punjab. At this stage formal system of education is unable to cope with the challenges of drastically increased demand for education. In this scenario non-formal education seems only cure for the development of human resources in rural areas. It has begun to play a dramatic role in elimination of poverty by educating those who have long been ignored in Pakistan; the countries rural and its poor. Education, as a fundamental human right, is considered very important and strategic for developing their human resources. The right to education imposes an obligation upon countries to ensure that all children and citizens have opportunities to meet their basic learning needs. Pakistan, the second largest country in South Asia, is sixth most populous country in the world with a population of 176 million, of which approximately 61 percent lives in rural areas. Literacy 2 rate of Pakistan is nearly 54 percent: 65.25% for men, and 41.75% for women. While the rural (44% overall, 58% for men, and 29% for women) literacy rate indicates the alarming situation of the rural population. Embarrassing situation of literacy especially in rural areas of Pakistan is the result of low financial priority to education as well as ill-conceived non-consistent policies in the past. For Pakistan to meet its education targets, the formal primary education system may undergo long-term reforms to reduce drop-out rates and increase access and quality of education. However, a short-term solution is also needed to ensure educational opportunities for children who have either dropped out or never joined the formal education system. To this end, the National Commission on Human Development establishes a network of community based nonformal schools. These non-formal schools are working as a support system addressing the immediate needs of the education sector while the Ministry of Education builds its own capacity to cover all of Pakistan. Children who graduate from the NFBE programmes can either join formal schools or vocational training programmes. The commission is implementing the Non-Formal Basic Education (NFBE) programmes through selected NGOs. The human development incubators in each district are fund support and building capacities of NGOs delivering non-formal education. Incubators are provided with hired services such as school budgeting, account management and teacher training. The NFBE programmes are helping Government of Pakistan to achieve its primary education goals. In the rural areas of Gujranwala region 500 NFBE schools were being run by NGOs for the elimination of poverty and gender discrimination.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 4
Q.4 COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF CANADA, RUSSIA AND UNITED KINGDOM. (20)
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF CANADA:-
Curriculum development in Canada has gone from teaching survival skills, both practical and cultural, to emphasizing self-fulfillment and standards-based achievements. This evolution mirrors that which has occurred in other developed countries, namely in Europe.
The term curriculum comes from the Latin currere, which means to run or proceed and refers to the experiences that shape children as they grow to mature adults. In modern times, curriculum includes statements of desired pupil outcomes (currently referred to as “standards”), descriptions of materials, and the planned sequence that will be used to help students attain specified educational objectives. Curricula are embodied in official documents (typically curriculum “guidelines” for teachers) and made mandatory by provincial and territorial ministries of education.
The primary focus of a curriculum is on what content should be taught and when it should be taught during the school or academic year. Teachers have traditionally possessed a considerable amount of discretion in deciding how this should be done. Learning objectives — not the instructional approaches — were mandated by provinces and territories. In practice, however, there has been no clear distinction between curriculum content and pedagogy since the manner in which a topic is taught often determines what is taught. For this reason, and for others, there is need to distinguish the official or planned curriculum — the formally approved program of study — from the de facto or lived (sometimes called hidden) curriculum — the norms, values, and beliefs that are often learned within classrooms and the broader social environment.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016
The history of Canadian curriculum development has been largely a battle among ideological camps for control over, or for greater space within, the curriculum. The direction and scope of curriculum change at any given time is often a fair reflection of which of the competing interests within mainstream educational circles has captured the educational agenda. These and outside advocacy groups — be they cultural, linguistic, intellectual, economic, political and religious — have noticeable impact on new direction.
The term “curriculum” seems to have been rarely used in Canada before Confederation. Nevertheless, the Jesuit term Ratio Studiorum (“plan of studies”) was introduced in New France in the 1630s. Although the Ratio Studiorum was created for secondary education in Europe, New France Jesuits put it forth at the elementary level since Aboriginal communities had long maintained oral traditions but not texts — a key Jesuit focus was on literacy. Early French-Canadian education was expected to “render children good servants of the King … and of God.” Later, in Nova Scotia and Upper Canada, Anglophone education took up similar goals, which were expressed in the teaching of Judeo-Christian morality and British patriotism. Not surprisingly, when education came under provincial jurisdiction after Confederation, the curriculum was based on common conservative social values. As such, schooling served, and continues to serve, a cultural imperative: to maintain or enhance the distinctive identities of selected groups in the Canadian mosaic. Some have argued that, given Canada’s geographic expanse, the autonomy of provincial curriculum development is essential.
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Prior to 1840, schooling in Canada was an informal and intermittent experience not yet separated from work. It took place in a parent- and church-controlled “system” aimed at teaching basic literacy and religious precepts. In New France, a formal curriculum was available to only an elite minority who were trained for religious and other privileged vocations — a system similar to our European counterparts’ of the time. Following the British Conquest in 1759-60, church-controlled schooling in Quebec was a primary agent of cultural survival and remained so until 1964, serving to maintain the French language and the Catholic religion.
It is important to note that our notions of schooling and the general organization of schools is largely a result of the Prussian model that was particularly influential after the French Revolution. This system required that all children between the ages of S and 13 years attend schools. Children were taught a national curriculum consisting of reading, writing and arithmetic, as well as ethics, discipline and obedience. This model was very successful — boasting an average literacy level of approximately 85 per cent by the later part of the 18th century — and was quickly adopted across much of Europe and was later emulated in North America and Japan.
CODE 8603 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2016
In Anglophone Canada, cultural survival was linked to fears of Americanization and to concerns raised with the arrival of the “famine Irish” and other dispossessed immigrants in the 1840s. School promoters such as Egerton Ryerson, the founding father of Canadian curriculum development, promoted secular reforms in Upper Canada that were designed to keep power from any one church. He saw state-controlled schooling as the primary means of assimilating “alien” elements and led School Acts that established libraries in every school, a centralized text book press (which used Canadian authors), and professional development conventions for teachers, and land grants for universities — one of which bears his name in downtown Toronto.
Over the next half-century, school promoters elsewhere in Canada followed Ryerson’s lead. They established administrative structures that enabled them to sort children into classes and grades, create a trained and hierarchically organized teaching force, and to devise a common curriculum for their province. This curriculum was implemented through uniform textbooks and was policed through inspection and examinations in a system that aspired to have all children taught to believe, to think and to behave in a similar way (see History of Education).
During the interwar years, further progressive (mainly American) ideas were adopted — including new notions of standardized testing, mental health, and administrative structures based on business management models — while the cultural content of the Anglophone curriculum remained British. Postwar affluence, the baby boom, and unprecedented public demands led to an expansion of schooling at the same time that a conservative backlash emerged against the supposed excesses of progressive education. The after-effect of this backlash created a shift to a more subject-centred curriculum (see School Systems). This shift had been reinforced by 1960, as Canadians followed their American neighbours in demanding greater educational rigour, especially in science and mathematics, in order to “catch up with the Russians.” This was to be achieved by teaching the “structure” (basic concepts and unique forms of reasoning) of each discipline by means of inquiry or “discovery” methods, which ironically owed much to the despised progressive theories. These ideas gained cautious approval in Canada where, typically, a lack of resources forced curriculum developers to rely on British and American innovations.
After 1965, a new permissiveness in school curriculum was manifested by a relaxation of centralized control, a proliferation of regionally developed courses of study, and a revived but modified child-centered thrust in elementary education. New knowledge, students’ desire for more practical and more relevant schooling, a larger and more diverse school population — particularly in urban centers — and tensions in society resulting from a breakdown of the old social consensus and from a questioning of traditional values, led to demands for innovation. With renewed fears of Americanization, with the rise of Quebec separatism, and in response to the demands of Aboriginal and other minority groups for equality, curriculum developers moved to establish bilingual, multicultural and Aboriginal studies programs, while also seeking to counter racism and sexism through more balanced and accurate treatment of minorities and women in textbooks. Special curricula were designed for the estimated 1 million exceptional children (see Special Education). Ontario’s master list of approved classroom materials increased from 61 titles (1950) to 1648 (1972). Advocacy groups included not only liberal proponents of “values education” but conservative advocates of “values schools.” The latter group demanded the inclusion of traditional Christian beliefs, the censorship of some curriculum materials, and stricter discipline.
SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016
A plethora of new advocacy groups — federal agencies, human rights, environmental and consumer organizations, foundations, professional associations, labour and business groups and others who saw the school as a proselytizing agency — pressed for changes in the curriculum and directed streams of teaching materials at classrooms. What was most striking about these efforts to influence the curriculum (which continue to the present) is the implied faith both in the potential of curriculum revision to reform classroom practices and, in turn, in the power of schooling to redress social and economic inequities.
As the struggle over curriculum became more public, provincial policymakers were frequently forced to respond in an ad hoc fashion to broad but fleeting popular concerns. Sometimes demands led to immediate action for which teachers were often ill-prepared. Many cart-before-the-horse reforms hastily introduced curricular changes without adequate pilot testing and appropriate support materials and professional development to ensure a smooth transition. By 1980, ministries of education were reverting to centralization as demands for “accountability” and “standards” led to restoration, in most provinces, of previously abandoned province-wide testing. These and other trends revealed a new interest in “scientific” curriculum development, entailing precise statements of “objectives” and the assessment of pupil “behaviours” measured by skill performance in the traditional “three Rs” (reading, writing and artithmetic).
In the early 1990s, rallying around a call to prepare students for the 21st century, several provinces embarked on large-scale school reform. Debate about Canada’s continued competitiveness in the global economy was fuelled by international studies comparing performance of students from Canada unfavorably to other industrialized countries and by perceptions of excessively high student drop-out rates. The perception was that swift action was needed to prepare our children for the demands of the new knowledge economy. There was also concern that more equitable, inclusive curriculum was required to attend to the diversity of students’ abilities, interests, backgrounds, and orientations. Among other changes, this meant going beyond what often was mere token representation of females and other groups in textbooks to a reshaping of curriculum and instruction to engage these groups. In many provinces children with disabilities were to be integrated into the main stream so that they spent the majority of their school day in regular classrooms with non-disabled students. Thus, the main curricular developments of the 1990s were on two fronts: establishing sets of common or essential elements that
Formed the “basics for all,” and providing for flexibility so that students might pursue individual interests and ambitions.
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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF RUSSIA:-
The Russian Federation has developed new “Federal State Educational Standards” (FSES) that define higher education programs at the bachelor, master and specialist level in terms of “workload credit units”, replacing the traditional system of expressing student workload in terms of hours. The introduction of “credit units” – aatiermwii eAmmmu/ zachetnaja edinitsa in Russian – is a result of Russia’s participation in the Bologna process, which requires the use of credits that are compatible with the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) as one tool in increasing student mobility in Europe.
The FSES are the outlines of curricular structure and content mandated for use at all levels of education throughout the Russian Federation. The development of a credit system in Russian higher education was first approved in 2002. The Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia began using a credit system in 2005. By 2007, over 100 higher education institutions and branches of institutions were using the credit system. The 2009 Bologna process National Report of the Russian Federation states that 50-75% of programs at Russian higher education institutions were using ECTS credits at that time. However, the use of credits was not mandated until the publication of the most recent “Federal State Educational Standards”, which define the student workload for each section of the curriculum for programs of study at the bachelor, master, and specialist levels in terms of “credit units”. The new credit unit is defined as representing 36 academic hours per credit. The academic hour in Russia is 45 minutes. A full-time year consists of 60 credits, making the Russian system compatible with the ECTS credit system. The four-year bachelor requires 240 credits. The five-year specialist requires 300 credits, while the six-year specialist program in medicine requires 360 credits. The two-year master, which follows the bachelor, requires 120 credits. The credit system is not used for the research-based degrees, the Candidate of Sciences and Doctor of Sciences.
The Russian ENIC, the National Information Center on Academic Recognition and Mobility, reports that the implementation of the credit-based FSES will take place in increments over the next several years. Students who began studies under previous iterations of the FSES will continue under the requirements of those programs and will receive a diploma and diploma addendum (transcript) in the state standard format of 2012. (Samples of all Russian academic documents in formats through 2012 are available on the Russian ENIC Web site.) Students who begin studies under the new FSES using the credit system will receive a newly-formatted diploma supplement that will show credits. The Russian ENIC will be posting the new document formats in the near future.
The rollout of the new FSES and the corresponding completion documentation is planned as follows: Bachelor (6axanaap): The FSES for bachelor studies were introduced in 2009-10. The first batch of diplomas with the new diploma supplement showing credits will be issued in 2014. Specialist (zoinnom [higher education diploma] with kaanwkimammg [professional qualification]): The specialist FSES took effect in 2010-2011. The first batch of diplomas with the new diploma supplement will be issued in 2015. Master (marmaep): The FSES were introduced in 2009-2010, and some institutions have already begun awarding diplomas with the new diploma supplement format.
AIOU B.ED. CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 AUTUMN 2016
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF UNITED KINGDOM
Curriculum development in the United Kingdom (UK) is inseparable from the politics and cultural milieu of the times. It is perhaps astonishing to readers in other countries, that in the UK almost every aspect of the school system today (except for the statutory age ranges of schooling) would be almost unrecognizable to a teacher from twenty years ago. That this amount of change has been possible and achieved through legislation and statute, often with minimum amounts of consultation, research and teacher involvement, is unprecedented and says much about the political psyche of the key players in curriculum development and about the rather loose and anarchic situation that existed for much of the 20th Century. This chapter inevitably has limits. It deals with the curriculum bounded by the compulsory age range of the school system, which is currently from age S to 16 (though some reference is made to the post 16 curriculum where relevant) and what is discussed applies mainly to the situation in England’. Analysis and reflection are limited to the post 1944 period. ‘Curriculum’ is an elusive concept in the UK setting. For Goodson (1988) it is a complex, interacting matrix that includes, schools in the state and private sectors, teachers and how they are trained, resources available and of course the subjects taught. It is interesting to note that, in the UK, the word ‘curriculum’ hardly enters the educational language until the 1970s (Bourdillon and Storey, 2002). Philip Taylor, writing for an Open University course book on curriculum development in 1971, commented that only one book on curriculum theory and practice in the UK appeared in the literature at this time (Taylor, 1971)— since the 1980s there have been hundreds. For many in the UK, curriculum development has become synonymous with the post-1989 National Curriculum and so, wrongly in the author’s opinion, with ‘imposed change’ rather than the more voluntary, less coercive term ‘development’.
COMPONENTS AND PARTNERSHIPS:-
To understand curriculum development in the UK it is necessary to consider two triadic relationships, one determining students’ experience of learning and the other the key players whose policies and actions shape experiences in the school system. These relationships are shown diagrammatically as
CURRICULUM CONTENT, POLICY AND PRACTICE
Before the National Curriculum the 1944 Education Act established statutory schooling for all between the ages of 5 and 13 and a tripartite secondary school system of grammar, technical and vocational/modern schools. It did little, however, to change the content of a curriculum that had existed for much of the first half of the 20th Century. The secondary school curriculum devised by the Board of Education in 1904 comprised subjects taught in the (selective and private) public and grammar schools of the day, the classics or a ‘modern’ foreign language, English literature, history and geography, science, drawing (art) and either manual work (for boys) or housewifery (for girls). This subject-based framework has changed little and is mostly still in place. Some see the 1904 subject list as a clear attempt at social division, preserving a privileged education for an elite ruling and bureaucratic class whilst creating something different for the blue and white-collared workers of the lower middle and working classes who serviced the nation’s factories and offices (Goodson, 1988; Kelly, 2004). Hence, the foundations of a vocational—academic divide were laid, something that has bedeviled curriculum development to this day. As in the 1904 curriculum, subjects were recommended by the state in the 1944 act but they were not prescribed or controlled by the state, with the exception of religious education. This left schools and teachers, in partnership with their Local Education Authorities, (LEAs) a remarkable degree of freedom to determine the precise nature of what could be included and how it should be taught, within certain limitations imposed by examination boards. Grace (1987) considers this decentralized autonomy in curriculum and pedagogy as reflecting a unique British sense of democracy in attitudes to schooling and a certain degree of faith in the professional integrity of teachers. It may also have been that the alternative, a prescriptive, state-controlled system, smacked of totalitarianism — anathema to the post-war Labour government of the time (Bourdillon and Storey, 2002).
NATIONAL CURRICULUM UNDER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603
THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM:- The pre-national curriculum period of curriculum development is regarded by some as a sort of relative ‘golden-age’ where teachers could effectively decide what they wanted to teach (Lawton, 1980). The truth of the matter is that this degree of ‘curricular autonomy’ was already being eroded by a succession of government initiatives. In 1982 for example, in response to a perceived need to modernise the curriculum of secondary schools and again to address the vocational-academic divide, the government introduced the Technical and Vocational Initiative (TVEI). Substantial sums of money were on offer for schools to invest in curriculum innovation in sciences, craft and technical subjects and on information technology. At first schools and teachers were suspicious of TVEI as it challenged their professionalism and represented a major shift towards centralised control of the curriculum. In effect research has shown that initiatives at local level were often vehicles for innovative and creative teachers to engage in professional growth and develop high-risk teaching (Harland, 1987). Harland describes some of these ‘TVEI-warm’ teachers as ‘released prisoners’ (p.47) able to shake off complacency about their teaching and to begin to develop into what Schein has called ‘reflective practitioners’ (Schan, 1987).
The 1988 Education Reform Act (ERA) that introduced the National Curriculum for all state-run schools in England and Wales from 1989 required schools to provide pupils with a ‘balanced and broadly-based curriculum’ that included a core (English, maths and science) and foundation subjects (design technology, information technology, history, geography, art, physical education, music and in secondary schools a modern foreign language). The content of each subject to be taught was statutory, devised by subject working groups and framed as age-related ‘programmes of study’ (DES, 1989). Programmes of study were defined for each of four age groups or ‘Key Stages’ (5-7, 7-11, 11-14, 14-16). Content for advanced study beyond 16 was not part of the National Curriculum and so this remained a contested area. A statutory assessment system was developed and appeared for core subjects as a series of ‘Attainment Targets’ each containing criterion-referenced statements of expected knowledge, understanding and skills all assessed on a 10-level scale. In science for example the 1989 version of the National Curriculum contained 17 Attainment Targets (ATs) and over 460 ‘statements of attainment’ (SoAs). The introduction of such a massive statutory edifice was viewed suspiciously by some who saw little of educational value in it, but plenty of political and ideological motives as an attempt by a Conservative government to reign in the power of (mainly) Labour controlled LEAs (Arnot, 1992; Burton and Weiner, 1990).
ASSESSING THE CURRICULUM:-
PUBLIC EXAMINATION SYSTEM AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AGAINST AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016
THE PUBLIC EXAMINATION SYSTEM AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PRE-1988
The assessment system set up after the 1944 Act introduced examinations at 16 (ordinary or ‘O’-level General Certificate of Education – GCE) and at 18 (the advanced or ‘A’-level GCE). These examinations were designed to certificate traditional academic subjects taught in grammar schools but it soon became apparent that a means of recognizing the achievement of students who had failed the 11 plus tests and were taught in modern and vocational schools was needed. Thus the Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) examination was devised. After raising the school leaving age to 16 in 1972, the number of CSE syllabuses proliferated. Some were based on content solely devised, examined and moderated by teachers with minimal involvement of examination boards. Thus the teacher controlled CSE system was different in that it developed in response to curriculum need rather than as a measure to control and constrain it. National curriculum assessment and testing and its effects on curriculum The Education Reform Act in 1988 (DES, 1988a) made clear that government wanted, in addition to the GCSE, a system to judge students’ achievement at each of the ‘Key Stages’ defined in the National Curriculum (i.e., at 7, 11 and 14). This was to be done through a combination of teacher judgments and externally set assessment ‘tasks’. The Task Group on Assessment and Testing (TGAT) chaired by Paul Black at Kings College, London was set up with the purpose of designing a system to achieve this (DES, 1988b). TGAT strongly supported teacher assessment ‘for formative and diagnostic purposes’ whilst also setting a 10-level scale of criterion referenced assessment to measure and report students’ progress. By applying a common scheme across all four Key Stages, TGAT provided a radically different solution to assessment —one offering progression and continuity through a common language of educational outcomes recognising knowledge, skill and understanding and applied across the entire age range of statutory schooling. The system was clearly meritocratic with potential to be understood by many different users; students, parents, school inspectors and so on.
PEDAGOGY — LAST CORNER OF THE ‘SECRET GARDEN’?
So, to the final element of the triadic relationship governing students’ learning experiences (Triad A — figure 1) — pedagogy, or the way in which curriculum is translated through teaching as student learning experiences. To what extent has the educational establishment (particularly teachers) been able to cling to any vestige of control in the drive to increased centralism that characterized much of the 1980s and 1990s. The answer is a rather guarded and qualified — ‘to a certain extent’. Attempts by government to influence and change pedagogy in schools have been more subtle compared with the legislative changes used to influence organization, structure, content and assessment of the curriculum. Development has been through a process of persuasion, sometimes attrition, typically by publication of government reports and political pamphlets, each seeking to open up public debate on what has been termed the ‘secret garden’ in British education2. Pressure for change has been increased through the combined use of highly persuasive (though not statutory) government ‘strategies’, funding incentives, in-service training and school inspection. Each has attempted to influence (sometimes to criticize) teaching methods.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 5 CLICK HERE