ASSIGNMENT No. 03 Teaching of English 519 B.Ed. Spring, 2016

Aiou solved assignment 3 for B.Ed. code 519 Teaching of English for the semester spring 2016. We have already uploaded solved assignments 1, 2 and 4 of this course code 519. The solution of this assignment No. 3 for code 519 is as follow:-

Q. 1 What is lesson planning? In a lesson planning, how we can plan opportunities for student’s participation? Explain the various step involved in planning a lesson. (20)

Lesson Planning:

The aim of effective teaching is not only communicating information but it needs planning, both for collecting information and conceiving the ways and means for delivering it. BACK GROUND INFORMATION BEFORE LESSON PLANNING. There is some important information before lesson planning which the teacher should have about his students.
What are your students? How old are they? What is their level of proficiency in English? How motivated are the students? What is syllabus? Which is the text book used?
Preparation before the lesson:
Resources material, availability of textbooks, Equipment in working order, questions and exercises t attempt the pupils and related answers to the teacher.
Steps in lesson planning:
In the preparation of lesson there are some steps, which a teacher may follow: –
To provide certain information at the top of every lesson i.e the teacher’s name, date of presentation, the estimated time of the lesson. Mention the teaching points briefly and specify the general topics of the lesson. For example:
“The use of present indefinite tense Teacher should also provide precise information on the following: Pre-assessment activity
What activity we will carry out to determine the need of a lesson? The activity might involve common errors frequently. Relationship to the current unit: How have we picked this unit? How does it fit in the plan and the unit of instruction we wish to present to the students? Why have we decided to teach it at this point?
Pre-entry performance: What is anything was covered in previous Lessons that we want to review or apply in the course of the lesson’
Performance objectives: State very precisely behaviors we expect the students to be able to perform as a result of this lesson. For example; if we want the students to determinate it eye and by sounds, our performance objectives for this teaching point eye and sounds criterion level: We as a teacher can decide in advance that the lesson will be considered successfully completed if X present we should aim for 80-1000/0 students or individuals. Material: This includes the textbook, if any handouts, the use of black board, audio-visual aids etc.
Preparation of procedure: The teacher specifies the procedure or activities that the students will engage in order to accomplish the objectives of the lesson. There are no specific rules or steps for the procedure. The first step of the procedure should be an introductory activity. The items of lesson planning are:
i. The assignment related to the lesson. ii. What alternative activity have been prepared if a change of plan is felt necessary. iii. Comments or self-evaluation, in the activity we should note whether or not the lesson was successful. What we would do to improve if we have to re-teach it. Here is an example how the specific from look like. We shall be able to save time by filling the columns specific to each plan.
The lesion plan:
Teacher’s name Date of presentation Estimated time of lesson Teaching point Pre-assessment activity Relationship to current unit Pre-entry performance Performance objectives Criterion level
The lesson plan should be not considered a fixed style and guide: -1. The lesson plan should be flexible. 2. If circumstances need change, changes should be made.
Classroom Skills useful for lesson planning
There are the four-significant areas of classroom interaction. That the teacher should be aware of in planning his lessons and analyzing his teaching. They are the social climate, the variety in learning activities. The opportunity of student participation and the need for feedback and correction. Finally, based on the four areas self-evaluation will suggest.
Social Climate:
It refers to the social background of the students their relationship with one another and with the teacher in the classroom environment. Social climate of the classroom promotes communication among the students and between the teacher and the students. It has been widely expected tact in the language teaching.
The promotion of social climate in the classroom
These points will helpful for a teacher to clear a good social climate: – (i) Learn student’s name, no matter how large the class. (ii) Student information sheet, learning the student’s name can be facilitated by knowing something about each student in the class. Teacher can get this information in the form of an information sheet as under: –
Full name Fathers name
Father’s profession Subject Taken
Favorite game Favorite Hobby
Class introductory activity:
The introduction about student’s can be making an introductory activity at the beginning of school year. This will create an acquaintance with the students as well as with the teacher for this activity.
Stages of lesson planning:
This stage is actually is a planning of lesson, the teacher plans, what is to be taught? How to teach? Etc. in this stage teacher also plans how to motivate the students and how to prepare the child’s mind to receive new knowledge. It is also a stage before going to class and teacher decides his strategies. How effective learning takes place. A teacher must have to do the following steps in that preparation stage: –
(i) Plan how much content is taught in one lesson, (ii) How this lesson is linked with student’s previous knowledge. (iii) What students activities we plan (pair work, group work etc) (iv) How will we make our lesson effective with aids? Can we get these visual aids easily or not what the source of these aids? (v) What teaching method will be adopted? (vi) Plan the exact writing contact, where will the black board, visual aids used?
Presentation: It is the stage when the actual lesson begins and teacher acts as an information. It also involves the stating the object of lesson. At this stage teacher present material in such a way that the meaning of new language is as clear and memorable as possible. Teacher should make use of different audio visual aids and new instructions to make lesson effective, informative and interesting. The students listen and try to understand. At this stage provides information to students. So they say very little accepts. When we invite them to join. Teacher should try to draw as much as possible from the students making use of questions.
Practice stage:
This stage also called application. At this stage the knowledge gained is applied for practice. This role of teacher at this stage is totally different to the preparation and presentation stage. The role of teacher is to skillfully conduct the practice. The role of teacher monitor and guide at this stage. He should monitor the performance of those students.
Production stage: It is very important stage in lesson planning. It makes our lesson effective and tells us how much objective of lesson have been achieved, at the practice stage, the production is controlled of the students are able to use the language for themselves, than the learning takes place. For this purpose, a teacher should also plan opportunities for students. A good teacher provides regular and frequent opportunities to use language freely. Free expression opportunity will not only encourage the students but also make their personality. The role of teacher at this stage is as a manager and guide.
How work activities can be given as activities outside the classroom. I can be oral practice, language practice, writing practice, reading practice and communicative practice which are (i) pair work, (ii) Group work, (iii) Dramatization the dialogue.
Evaluation stage:
To evaluate means to “Find out or “to decide about”. At this stage teacher must evaluate the lesson to find the extent to which he has achieved the objective of his lesson or not. Evaluation exercises can be done by recapitulation of subject matter through suitable questions. Fdr evaluation class may be divided into pair or groups.
Follow up stage:
The teacher assigns tasks so that students will continue to be used what they have learned both from the particular lesson and from the previous lesson.

Q. 2 Describe the meaning and characteristics of evaluation. Make valid decisions about using different criteria for evaluating student’s performance in English. (20)

Evaluation is an old process as the history of making itself education is no-excepting. Here we evaluate; our own performance as teachers and evaluate the achievement of students in comparison to set objectives of the programme.
Nature and Definition:
The term evaluation is a fairly comprehensive are and includes the terms measurement, assessment, etc in its overall umbrella. These terms are a part and parcel of evaluation. According to Ahmano and Glock, Education measurement it is the process that attempts to obtain quantified representation of the degree to which a student reflects a trait. It is a more inclusive terms that measurement. It is a process which a teacher commonly uses information derived from many sources to arrive at a value judgment such information might be obtained by using measuring instrument as well as other techniques that do not, necessarily yield quantitative results such as general information questionnaires, direct observations and teacher, pupil interview, in the following, here are some definitions of term evaluation:
Evaluation is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing data in order to make decision.
i. Education evaluation is the systematic process of determining the effectiveness of educational endeavors in the light of evidence 2. Evaluation is the assessment of whether teaching achieves its objectives. 4. Evaluation may be defined as the complete process of identifying the objectives of an aspect of educational and appraising the extent to which these objectives have been achieved.
These definitions includes that it is a highly essential activity on the part of a teacher which enable shim to judge as to what extent the predetermined objectives of educational programme have been achieved. The process of evaluation yields, so many important information to the teacher and others involved .in the instructional.
Significance of Evaluation:
We have cursory look at the purpose served by evaluation in general. According to Klausemirer and Goodwin, the purposes include the following:
To facilitate students’ progress, to assess student’s progress, to understand individual students, to facilitate self-understanding by the student, to evaluate instructional programmes and to contribute knowledge of abilities and instructions.
Purposes of Evaluation:
1. To determine readiness for instructional programme.
2. To classify to place individual appropriate classes of language.
3. To diagnose the individual’s specific strengths and weakness.
4. To ensure aptitude for learning.
5. To measure the extent of student’s achievement of instructional goals.
6. To evaluate the effectiveness of instructions.

Some characteristics of good evaluation mentioned as under:
1. Validity: Good evaluation procedure must have validity. By validity we mean that it must serve the purpose it is meant to serve. A test would not be valid if it testa any other thing but he easy writing ability. 2. Reliability: An evaluation should have reliability. It means the degree to which the result yielded by a test is consistent or stable. For example, a test in reliable if within reasonable time, a student every time gets almost the same marks. If in a translation test, a student gets 25/50 marks and soon after gets 10/50 or 4050 marks, the test is not said to be reliable.
3. Usability:
The test or evaluation instrument should be usable in other word, it should be practicable or administrate. For example, it not possible to administer a test to assess the student’s performance which takes eight hours. So the test designed on these lines is not use able.
4. Suitability:
A test should suitable to the mental maturity level and physical readiness of the students. For example, it is not suitable to ask a beginner of English to write an essay on journey to Mars in this language. Similarly advanced level student may not be asked to tell spellings of simple words like toy, man etc.
4. Motivation ability:
The evaluation tool, test etc design for the purpose should motivate the students, teachers and other involved in the process to accelerate efforts in achieving the pre-determined objectives of teaching. Any test which leaves negative impact upon them is not a good test.
S. Objectivity:
The evaluation should be designed in such a way that it comes out to be an objective instrument for measuring the intended characteristics.
7. Score ability:
A test should be easy to be scored so that the scorer does not feel exhausted or board. A test which is difficult to be scored makes the valuation lose his interest in the whole process which likes to affect the objectivity of the same.
Use of Evaluation for student’s improvement and performance:
Following are some of the points which a teacher must keep in mind to ensure improvement / performance of students learning.
Encourage self-evaluation:
The teacher must encourage self-evaluation of different aspects of teaching English language, it helps both the teacher and students in knowledge their strengths and weaknesses and thus provides them valid basis for adapting suitable strategies of language learning. For example, a class might adopt a list of “rules” for giving an oral report similar to the following and use it as the basis for judging effectiveness of their reports. Have an interesting topic, start with a good opening sentences, look at the audience, make your voice loud enough to be heard, organize your report carefully, stick to the topic, use good sentences and have a good closing.
The teacher should also practice self-evaluation:
By diagnostic evaluating, the teacher can identify the specific needs, interest, errors, bad habits and weaknesses of the students and make suitable modifications in his teaching methods and techniques.
To be regular grading and reporting:
Grades need to be given to the students in order to give a sort of more or less concrete rating to student’s performance. It provides some in dictation about the student relative position. A teacher who is quite regular and particular in awarding grades and sending reports about students’ performance can push the student’s parent, school, authorities and other concerned, towards ensuring better learning the part of the students with the help of the previous and the present record of performance, the teacher can determine the trend of student’s space in learning. To make the objectives of evaluation clear to the students:
To ensure a purposeful evaluation and improvement in students teaming. It is highly essential to make the students clear about objectives against which they are going to be tested and evaluated. This would put the students in a situation where they would ask themselves the questions like the following:
i. Do I know the correct use of idioms? u. Do I know how to make nouns from verbs? iii. Do I know answers to all the questions given towards the end of each lesson? iv. Do I know the summaries of all the poems? •
To ensure participatory planning of evaluation procedure to motivate the students. As a teacher of English teacher we must ensure participatory planning of evaluation procedure. So if order to motivate the students it is proposed that we should:
a) Make clear to the students the whole content out of which they are to be evaluated. b) Encourage them to purpose the possible dates and time at which they wish to be evaluated. c) Immediately communicate to the students any change in the schedule which should most preferably come later and not earlier than announced dates.
Some important points for discussion:
1. Objective, against which is to be judged the students’ performance should be make clear to them. 2. Plan beforehand about the schedule of administering test, or holding any other sort of activity of evaluation. 3. Motivate the students by ensuring their participation in finalizing any programme of evaluation. 4. Try to arrange the evaluation experiences / activities in such a manner that they had to the feeling of maximum success on the part of the students. 5. Never lose right of the hard fact that the students differ in their levels of intelligence and learning capabilities.
To test the pupils Achievements in oral English:
Oral: It is used to test reading, comprehension, expression; some of the various devices used to test these are as follows: Reading: the teacher asks students to read a passage one by one. He himself notes their pronunciation, stress, speed and intonation. Comprehension: (Auditory comprehension) The teacher reads a passage and ask questions on that. Reading comprehension: The teacher asks students to read (silently or loudly) a passage of prose and then asks some questions on that passage. Picture comprehension: The teacher shows a picture to the students and then asks some questions based on this picture. Story comprehension: The teacher relates a story before students and then asks some questions on that story.
Expressions: The levels of expression in speed as pointed out Agard and Buket are: i. Ability to report a single, simple act or situation in precise words ii. Ability to express a sequence of ideas fluently iii. Ability to converse. Expression test be taken as follows:
(A) The teacher performs some actions, he asks the students to describe it. (8) The teacher shows a picture and asks students to describe it. (C) The teacher shows some general questions. (D)The teacher gives a topic and asks students to speak a few sentences on that.
These above tests enable to teacher to test the students pronunciation as well as comprehension. Yet such a test in unsatisfactory because it is time consuming and because too many different aspects sounds, stress, rhythm, intonation, fluency as well as comprehension are tested simultaneously. This type of test can be streamlined if one aspect at a time is judged on the basis of multiple-choice questions given in writing along with passage to the students. This will also affect a kind of standardization and bring in a measure of objectivity. The non-objectivity of oral examinations may also be reduced by recording the student’s answers for replay and assessment by the teacher later.
Multiple choice questions from textbook:
1. Demonstrate means. (a) Create (b) prove (c) perform (d) all of the above. 2. World affectionate used for (a) Love (b) sympathy (c) kind (d) over and kind 3. Virtuous is (a) Verb (b) noun (c) Adjective (d) None of them 4. The base form of swept is (a) Swep (b) sweep (c) sweap (d) None of them 5. Infuriated means (a) Become angry (b) became happy (c) became harsh (d) became polite 6. The emigration Madina Akah’s Glory. (a) Indicated (b) indicate (c) indicates (d) indications 7. He was modest and kind (a) past indefinite tense (b) simple past tense (c) past continuous tense (d) b and c 8. Common Wealth is used (a) Wealth of or poor (b) Zakat (c) a and b (d) independent community 9. Grieve is synonymous to (a) Helpless (b) sorrow (c) hurt (d) b and c 10. The Holy Prophet set a new example of human treatment: (a) Present indefinite tense (b) present tense (c) a and b (d) past indefinite tense.

Q. 3 Identify different types of nouns and pronouns with examples. (20)

Types of nouns and pronouns

Nouns refer to people, places, things and ideas. However, English grammar separates nouns into several other categories, such as abstract nouns and collective nouns. In addition, pronouns often replace nouns in sentences. Several types of pronouns exist, including personal pronouns and possessive pronouns. Categorizing pronouns and nouns might seem complicated, but studying examples of different types makes it simple.
Personal Pronouns
Personal pronouns replace specific things and people in sentences. Personal pronouns can function as a sentence’s subject, such as “he” in the sentence “He ate the leftover applesauce.” They also can function as an object, such as “you” in the sentence “Angela will lend that book to you.”
Reflexive Pronouns
Reflexive pronouns indicate that the subject of the sentence receives the action of the verb. For example, “ourselves” in the sentence “We can cook dinner ourselves” is a reflexive pronoun. So is “himself” in the sentence “Joey can drive himself.”
Possessive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns indicate ownership or possession. For example, “Your” in the sentence “Your jacket is on the floor” is a possessive pronoun, as is “mine” in “The leftover piece of cake is mine.”
Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns ask questions. For example, “who’ and “what” are interrogative pronouns in the sentences “Who gave you the present?” and “What made that sound?”
Indefinite Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns refer to a general group or thing, instead of a specific person or thing. For example, “all” is an indefinite pronoun in the sentence “All the players must pass their classes.”
Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns refer to nouns or other pronouns and relate the subject to the verb. For example, “who” is a relative pronoun in “The employee who set off the fire alarm was punished.” Relative pronouns are often the same pronouns as interrogative pronouns, but they do not ask a question.
Common Nouns
Common nouns are uncapitalized words for people, places or things, such as the librarian, boys, adoration, kitten or parks. Common nouns can be concrete or abstract.
Proper Nouns
Proper nouns name specific people, places or things. Proper nouns are easy to identify because they are always capitalized. For example, President Obama, Anna, Los Angeles and the Georgia Aquarium are all proper nouns.
Nominative Nouns
Nominative nouns refer to nouns that act as the subject of a sentence. For example, “Jill” is a nominative noun in the sentence “Jill mailed a letter.”
Concrete Nouns
Concrete nouns refer to nouns that have visible, concrete forms, such as a cup, frame, chair, certificate or notebook. Ideas cannot be concrete nouns.
Abstract Nouns
Abstract nouns are nouns that don’t have a visible form, such as ideas and concepts. Love, freedom, individuality, democracy and loneliness are abstract nouns. Abstract nouns can be the subject of a sentence, such as “Freedom is worth fighting for,” or the object of a preposition, such as “Life has no purpose without love.
Collective Nouns
Collective nouns describe more than one person, place or thing, but are considered a singular noun. For example, herd, class and family are collective nouns. Understanding collective nouns is essential to proper subject-verb agreement. For example, the sentence “My family is big”is grammatically correct, while “My family are big” is incorrect.
A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun in a sentence. Pronouns are used so that our language is not cumbersome with the same nouns being repeated over and over in a paragraph. Some examples of pronouns include, me, mine, myself, she, her, hers, herself, we, us,ours and ourselves. You may have noticed that they tend to come in sets of four, all referring to the same person, group or thing.
He, him, his and himself, for example, all refer to a male person or something belonging to him • They, them, theirs and themselves all refer to a group or something belonging to a group, and so on. The truth is that there are many different types of pronouns, each serving a different purpose in a sentence.
Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns can be the subject of a clause or sentence. They are: I, he, she, it, they, we, and you. Example: “They went to the store.”
Personal pronouns can also be objective, where they are the object of a verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. They are: me, her, him, it, you, them, and us. Example: “David gave the gift to her.” Possession can be shown by personal pronouns, like: mine, his, hers, ours, yours, its, and theirs. Example: “Is this mine or yours?” Subject Pronouns
Subject pronouns are often (but not always) found at the beginning of a sentence. More precisely, the subject of a sentence is the person or thing that lives out the verb. I owe that person $3,000. – I am living out that debt. I is the subject pronoun. • He and I had a fight. – This sentence has two subjects because he and I were both involved in the fight. He broke my kneecaps. – You get the idea. • To him, I must now pay my children’s college funds. – If you’ll notice, the verb in this sentence – the action – is “pay.” Although I is not at the beginning of the sentence, it is the person living out the action and is, therefore, the subject.
Object Pronouns
By contrast, objects and object pronouns indicate the recipient of an action or motion. They come after verbs and prepositions (to, with, for, at, on, beside, under, around, etc.). ▪ The guy I borrowed money from showed me a crowbar and told me to pay him immediately. I begged him for more time. • He said he’d given me enough time already. :., I tried to dodge the crowbar, but he hit me with it anyway. • Just then, the police arrived and arrested us.
Subject vs. Object Pronouns
There is often confusion over which pronouns you should use when you are one half of a dual subject x object. For example, should you say: .. “Me and him had a fight.” or “He and I had a fight?” • “The police arrested me and him.” or “The police arrested he and I?” Some people will tell you that you should always put the other person first and refer to yourself as “I” because it’s more proper, but those people are wrong. You can put the other person first out of politeness, but you should always use the correct pronouns (subject or object) for the sentence. A good test to decide which one you need is to try the sentence with one pronoun at a time. Would you say, “Me had a fight?” Of course not. You’d say, “I had a fight.” What about, “Him had a fight?” No, you’d say, “He had a fight.” So when you put the two subjects together, you get, “He and I had a fight.” The same rule applies to the other example.
 You wouldn’t say, “The police arrested him,” or, “The police arrested I.”
 You would use “him” and “me.”
 So the correct sentence is, “The police arrested him and me.”
Possessive Adjectives vs. Possessive Pronouns Pronominal possessive adjectives include the following: my, your, our, their, his, her and its. They are sort of pronouns in that they refer to an understood noun, showing possession by that noun of something. They are technically adjectives, though, because they modify a noun that follows them.
 My money is all gone.
 I gambled it all away on your race horse.
 His jockey was too fat.
In all of these examples, there is a noun (money, race horse, and jockey) that has not been replaced with a pronoun. Instead, an adjective is there to show whose money, horse and jockey we’re talking about.
Possessive pronouns, on the other hand – mine, yours, ours, theirs, his, hers, its – are truly pronouns because they refer to a previously named or understood noun. They stand alone, not followed by any other noun. For comparison’s sake, look at this sentence:
• You have your vices, and I have mine.
There are two types of pronouns here: subject (you/I) and possessive (mine). There’s also a possessive adjective (your). We’ll deal with the subject pronouns momentarily, but for now, just look at the others.
Your is followed by the noun, vices, so although we know that your refers to you, it is not the noun or the noun substitute (pronoun). Vices is the noun. In the second half of the sentence, however, the noun and the possessive adjective have both been replaced with one word – the pronoun, mine. Because it stands in the place of the noun, mine is a true pronoun whereas your is an adjective that must be followed by a noun.
Indefinite Pronouns
These pronouns do not point to any particular nouns, but refer to things or people in general. Some of them are: few, everyone, all, some, anything, and nobody. Example: “Everyone is already here.”
Relative Pronouns
These pronouns are used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. These are: who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whichever, and that. Example: “The driver who ran the stop sign was careless.”
Intensive Pronouns These pronouns are used to emphasize a noun or pronoun. These are: myself, himself, herself, themselves, itself, yourself, yourselves, and ourselves. Example: “He himself is his worst critic.”
Demonstrative Pronouns
There are five demonstrative pronouns: these, those, this, that, and such. They focus attention on the nouns that are replacing. Examples: “Such was his understanding.” “Those are totally awesome.”
Interrogative Pronouns These pronouns are used to begin a question: who, whom, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, and whatever. Example: “Who will you bring to the party?”
Reflexive Pronouns There is one more type of pronoun, and that is the reflexive pronoun. These are the ones that end in “self” or “selves.” They are object pronouns that we use when the subject and the object are the same noun.
: told myself not to bet all my money on one horse. The robber hurt himself chasing me through the alley.
We also use them to emphasize the subject. Usually, the guy I borrowed the money from will send an employee to collect the money, but since I owed so much, he himself came to my house. Examples of Pronouns in Context Now see if you can find all the pronouns and possessive adjectives in this paragraph: No matter what your teachers may have taught you about pronouns, the Is don’t always have it. If your teachers ever warned you about the evils of gambling, however, they were right about that. You don’t want someone breaking your kneecaps with his crowbar; it will hurt, the police might arrest you, and you may never forgive yourself.

Q. 4 Define the terms verb, adverbs and proposition. Explain their uses with examples. ( 20)
VERB: A word which denotes action is called verb. Verbs are the most important words in the language infect we cannot make a sentence without verb. Verbs are used to say that people do; they express an action e.g. the wood cutter sat on the bank (what did he do?) She showed him a good axe (what did she do?) That’s mine “Said the happy wood cutter (what did he do?), the chief of the verbs is to be (am, is, are, was, were). These verbs usually have an adjective after them. Verbs are used to express an action or a state of being. If the subject of a sentence is singular, the verb is singular, if the subject is plural the verb is plural. Verbs that take objects are called intransitive verbs. Verbs make sentences, ask questions or give commands. ACTION VERB: An action verb tells that someone or something does action verbs as their name shows tell of action. Example: Raza plucked flowers (plucked tells what Raza did). Sometimes action verbs express an action that cannot be seen. As believe, know, think, remember, and understand. Transitive Verbs: Verbs that take object are called transitive verbs. For example: Anne opened the book (the action of the verb “opened” is direct towards the book or the verb opened has taken direct object, the book). Intransitive verbs: Verbs that don’t objects are called intransitive verbs. For example: He talked nicely; the train arrived late. Some verbs may be transitive in one sentence and intransitive in another.
For example:
Moosa speaks Urdu (transitive). Qasim speaks fluently (intransitive). The speaker answered many questions. (Transitive). The speaker answered angrily (intransitive).

Linking verb:
Some verbs help to make a statement not by expressing action but by serving a link between two words. Linking verbs cannot complete the thought of sentence all by itself. It needs to be followed by another word or words, which are called subject, compete. Competitors may be nouns, pronouns, adjectives or adverbs. For example: The Hall is full of people ‘is’ in the lining verb. “Full” is an adjective that tells something about the condition of the room. Some of verbs are: am, are, is, was, were, other lining verbs are: appear, become, look, Seen, sound. It stands sweet. He seemed aware of his entire situation.

Auxiliary verbs:
An auxiliary verb helps the main verb tell what happens e.g. He will come out of the room. The auxiliary verb will help the main verb ‘come’ we can see it (‘can’ is auxiliary) The most common auxiliary verbs are as follow: An, have, can, might, are, is was, were, has, had, shall, will, could, may, should, would, could, must, do does, did etc. The main verb and its auxiliary verb or verbs make the complete verb also called the verb phrase e.g. Zafar should know the answer.

The Principal parts of verb:
The four basic forms of a verb are called the principal parts of the verb. They are; Infinite, the present participle. The past, the past participle. The four principal parts of the verb “do” are. Do (infinitive) Doing {present participle), did (past participial) e.g. I do my work, I am doing my work. I did horrie work this morning, I have done my homework.

Regular Verbs:
A verb that forms its past and past participle forms by adding ‘d’ or ‘ed’ to the first principal part (infinitive) is a regular verb. For example Use used used, Ask Ask Asked Talk Talked Talked.

Irregular verbs:
A verb that forms its past participle some other way then a regular verb is an irregular verb. Irregular verbs form their past and past participle various ways;
Begin Began Begun
Speak Spoke Spoken
Bring Brought Brought
Put Put Put

The words that go with verbs are called adverb. Some tell how an action is done e.g.. The old gentlemen walked (verb) slowly (adverb) along a street. The little boy ran (verb) sorrow fully (adverb) by the side of the river. These verbs are called adverb of manner. Adverbs are often formed by adding “by” to an adjective e.g. the boy runs quickly (adverb), The boy is a quick runner (adjective). The old gentleman was a slow walker (adjective) The old gentleman walked slowly (adverb) The little boy’s behavior was bad (adjective) The little boy behaved badly (adverb).

But whore are some adverbs that are not formed like this, e.g. Jamal is a hard worker (Adjective). Jamal works hard (adverb) It goes very fast (adverb)
Adverbs are generally put after the go with adjectives are generally put before the noun they go with. Adjectives are generally put before the noun they go with.
When the adjective ends in “y” the adverb changes the ‘y’ to T. An adverb goes with a verb to tell how when or where an action takes place. A word which modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb is called adverb. For example: He is derived carefully. They ran slowly. Adverb Modifying Very Adjective brilliant Suddenly verb-gave up Carefully verb drives Least Adjective-important Too Adverb slowly, often Very Adverb skillfully, attentively Totally Adjective, hopeless Quite Adverb – often. Identification of Adverb: An adverb tells ” how’ when, where, performed. For example: How: Politely, slowly, patiently, carefully. When: soon, now, then, after words. Where: Here, there, inside, everywhere. How much: Too, very, extremely, and nearly. How often: Daily, rarely, seldom, once. Position in sentence: Some adverbs can be placed in different positions within a sentence e.g. she often says, she reads. 1. Adverb of frequency like, ever, never, always are always used before verb. For example: I always say them, I never go to Sunday bazaar. She is ever ready to go home. 2. Adverb of items are either used before or at the end of sentence. But usually at the end e.g. coming tomorrow, leaving now, coming yesterday. 3. Initial position of adverb in a sentence of greatest emphasis e.g. Now you shut up, always do your job honestly. Signal words: A word like, very, quite or rather may signal that an adjective or an adverb follows. They are placed in front of words they modify. For example: very happy -very sorry, quite intelligent – rather boring. Ending: Many adverbs are formed by adding’ ly’ to adjective e.g. Adjective Calm clever Hopeful Brave, Adverb calmly cleverly hopefully bravely
Some adjectives end on by e.g. early train. Friendly person, lovely flower, lovely girl. Adverb always defines adjective verb and other verb. It defines pronoun adjective and noun. This point differs adverb and adjectives. For example: A dangerous accident occurred on the road in this sentence. Dangerous is an adjective because it modifies Accident (pronoun) Kinds of Adverb: 1. Adverb of manner: It shows how, the manner in which, the action is/was/will be performed. For example, slowly, carefully, quickly, e.g. He closes the door slowly, Dr. carefully examine the patient. She smiles sweetly. He quickly came back etc. 2. Adverb of place: For example: Here, up, down, there, every, where, e.g. he came here, she came home, he has not reached there, I searched my purse everywhere. 3. Adverb of time: It shows when the action took/ will take/ takes play. For example, soon, later, now, yet still etc, e.g. He comes here today, the ball is still in the air, I shall go to Lahore tomorrow; he is yet ill.
4. Adverb of degree:
The indicate to what extent the actions is performed. For example: -patter, extremely, fairly, terribly, quite, almost, i am extremely very sorry, she was almost dead. He is quite right.

5. Relative Adverbs
(Adverbs of Adverbial of cause) It shows why the action is/was/will be performed. For example: Show me house where your brother lived. That is why I failed.

6. Adverbs of frequency:
They indicate how often the action is performed. For example: Often, always, usually, seldom, generally, never again etc e.g. He usually comes late in the classroom. Try again and again, I always say prayer. He never went to Karachi.

7. Adverb of Interrogation:
It asks questions such as when, where, why and how the action was/is /done.
For example: where are you going? Why was he punished?
Comparison of Adverbs: Like adjectives, adverbs also have three degrees: Positive Comparative Superlative Hard Harder Hardest Fare fully more fare fully most fully Irregular degrees of adverbs: Little less least Much more most Good better best.

Position of Adverbs:
If an adverb modifies an intransitive verb, it is place after the verb e.g. She smiled sweetly. If an adverb modifies intransitive verb, it is placed before the verb or after the object of verb. For example: I carefully closed the door, HE received her happily. If an adverb modifies a whole sentence / clause, then it usually takes front position.
For example: Fortunately we were passed. Kindly wait for me. Adverbs of frequency are mostly placed between the subject and adverb called mid position adverb (MPAS)
Subject MPAS Verb Object
You again play cricket.
I generally played cricket.
If an adverb modifies an adjective, it is placed before it. For example: He is very nice man. He is quite right, this is a fairly large room. If it modifies another adverb it is a placed before it.

For example:
1. You look rather ill. (Simple-degree)
2. He has not reached as yet (simple-denying)
3. How are you? (Interrogative-state)
4. You have insulted me many times (simples-number)
5. How often do you go there? (Interrogative-number)
6. The train will arrive late (simple-time)
7. This is the place where my forefathers used to live (relative-placed)
8. When will she phone you (interrogative-time?)
9. I shall phone you there (simple -place) 10. You have all done very well (simple-quality).


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  1. Reply
    hamza July 13, 2016 at 2:41 pm

    please updates code 207

    • Reply
      Error July 14, 2016 at 5:59 am

      Very soon will up updated keep your visit regular. Thanks

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