SPRING 2016 TEACHING OF ENGLISH CODE 519 SPRING 2016
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Question No. 2: Define active voice and passive voice sentences. How we can change active voice sentences into passive voice and direct form sentences into indirect for sentences. Give examples?
Answer: Active voice and passive voice: Active and passive voice and similarly, direct and indirect speech are different mode of expression. Voice is a set of forms of a verb showing relation of the subject to the action as active or passive. For example:-
1. He reads the book. The book is read by him.
2. I am eating mango. A mango is being eaten by me.
3. They are pulling the rope. The rope is pulled by them.
In the above sentences, we see the subjects (He, I, they) are acting. They are performing the action stated by the verbs (reads), eating, pulling). These are active voice sentences. Other sentences show that the subject (the book, a mango, the rope) is not acting. They do not perform the action stated by the verbs. They are passive voice.
The active voice comprises all form of intransitive verbs and those forms of transitive verbs that attribute the verbal action to the person or ting when it proceeds.
Passive voice: –
Passive voice comprising those forms of transitive verbs that attribute the verbal action to the person etc to whom it directed. There are two main reasons for using the passive voice. We use the passive voice because;
1. The agent (or performer of the action) is unknown.
2. In English, the topic or theme of the sentence usually comes in front of the sentence. For example;
This book was written 1000 years ago (No body know exactly who wrote it). When the agent is un-known, we use the passive voice. The second reason is the most important. For example; My mother born in 1935 (active). I was born in 1926(passive). In the active voice sentence, may mother is the topic or theme of the sentence. In the passive voice ‘I’ is the topic or theme of the sentence which properly expresses the purpose of the speaker. For example;
Active voice Passive voice
She wrote a letter today a letter was written by her today.
I have finished the book the book has finished by me.
Who gave me the match? By whom was i given the match?
Conclusion of sentences:
I. While changing the active voice into the passive voice, the object become the, subject and the verb should be used in accordance with the subject.
II. In all tenses the passive voice, the third form of the verb is used.
III. ‘ing’ used in the active voice is changed into being, in the passive voice.
IV. When has, have or had is used in the passive voice, ‘been’ must also be used.
V. Have may change into ‘has’ and ‘has’ may change into have in accordance with the subject of the sentence.
VI. When ‘will’ shall’ would or should’ is used in the passive there must also be ‘be’ with it.
VII. As in the active voice a question in the passive voice must have a question mark in the end.
VIII. When we change a question into the passive voice, we must keep the question or order.
Who wrote this? By whom was this written? Why did she break the glass?
Why was the glass broken by her?
While using indefinite tense in the passive voice following points should keep in mind: –
1. Only transitive verbs are used in the passive voice.
2. If a verb in a sentence is in present indefinite tense, it can be turned into passive voice verb by using ‘is’ or ‘are’ before the 3rd form of the verb.
3. If a verb in a sentence is in past indefinite tense, it can be turned into passive voice verb by using ‘was’ or ‘were’ before the 31° form of the verb.
4. If a verb is sentence is in future indefinite tense, it can be turned into passive voice verb by using ‘shall be’ or’ will be’ before the 3rd form of the verb.
For example: – The story is told. The story is not told. In the story told? They will be punished. She will be given a prize with this egg boiled?
These books will not be sold.
Following points are to be kept in mind for using passive voice in continuous tenses: –
(A) If the verb of sentence in the present continuous tense it can be turned into passive voice using being or are being before the 3’d form of the verb e.g. The horse is being fed. The thief is being punished.
(B) If the verb of sentence in past continuous tense, in can be turned into passive voice verb by using, was being’ or were being’ before the 3’d form of the verb e.g. the books were being bought. Was the house being sold?
(C) We should remember that sentence in the future continuous tense can to be turned into the passive voice.
While using the passive vice in the perfect tense, we should follow these rules:-
1 If the verb of a sentence is in the perfect tense, it can be turned in passive voice verb by using ‘had been’ have been’ before the 3`d form of the verb e.g. The work has been competed, we have not been asked about it.
2. If the verb of sentence is the past perfect tense, it can be turned into passive voice by using ‘had been’ before the 3’d form of the verb. This lesson had already been taught.
3. If the verb of a sentence is in the future perfect tense, it can be turned into passive voice by using, shall have been or will have been, before the 3’d form of the verb. For example: – the matter will have been decided before you each. I shall have been taken my meals before they knock at the door.
4. We should remember that the perfect continuous tense can’t be changed into the passive voice.
Direct and indirect speech:
Direct speech means the words actually spoken. Sometimes we use the actual words of the speaker without any change. We put direct speech in question mark (‘ ‘)..fior example: ‘I’ m tired. These marks are also called inverted commas. We use direct speech when we want to repeat the exact words.
In reported speech we often change the actual word, e.g. I’m tired (he is tired). Sometimes the verb tense changes, e.g. (I want she wanted). When we report statements, we often use that, but we can sometimes leave it out e.g. (you told me that you were working today), (Hamid promised that he wouldn’t be late. When we leave out that we sound less formal. We can also report thought as well as speech. We think, the meal was expensive.
Change of person, place and time:
Imagine that on Friday afternoon you and Saleem visiting Baqar at his flat. Baqar say, ” I am having a party here tomorrow evening, would you like to come? Saleem did not hear what Baqar said, so a few moments later you Saleem. Baqar said, he is having a party here tomorrow evening. The speaker has changed, so ‘I’ changed to ‘he’. The next day you tell someone else Baqar said, he is having a party at his flat this evening. The place is different, so here changes to at his flat and the time ahs changes.
Change from direct speech to reported speech depends on changes in the situation —- a different speaker or a different place or time some typical changes are her/she, my—his/her, tomorrow—- the next day, this —- that, last week the week before. Another way of changes persons in reported speech (in inverted commas)is, 1 2 3 ( 1s` person into subject, 2nd person into object and 3rd person no S 0 N, change) When do we change the tense? After a past tense verb(e.g. said , told) (is –was) it’s cold—-Jimmy said it was cold, you look pale I told her, she look pale.
1. We often leave the tense the same but we can change it. Baqar said he’s (or he was) having a party net weekend. You said you like (or liked) walking. Ali Abid told me his father owns(owned) a supermarket.
2. If the statement is out of date then we can change the tense in reported speech.
3. We usually change the tense if we think the statement may be untrue e.g. you said ‘liked’ chocolate, but you aren’t eating any.
4. In news reports the tense usually changes (some people may think the statements is true. The Prime Minster said that the Govt. ‘that’ made the right decision. For some example: –
Direct speech indirect speech
We like this place The couple said they liked the place.
I’m fit now The player said he was fit than.
Kashif is cheating He thought Kashif was cheating.
The letters are not opened They said the letters were not opened.
5. After said/ thought/ told etc the verb often changes form present to past e.g. an—was. If the verb phrase is more than one word, then the first word changes e.g. is cheating –was cheating, have finished – had finished. If the verb is already past (e.g. did) then it can stay the same. We traveled here by car – The couple said that they traveled (or had traveled) by car: If the verb is past perfect, it says the same. My money had run out – Baqar said that his money had run out.
Wh – questions and yes/no questions:-
We can report a question by using verb like ask, wonder as went to know Direct question, Reported question and Wh question e.g., when did you leave the school—–The interviewer asked Sadaf when she left the school. What the time —- I just asked what the time is. Which way is the post office—Ali wants to know which way the Post Office is, How can we find out?— I was wondering how we find out, where can we eat?—:They wanted to know where they can eat.
Have Fatima arrived yet? No not yet—- some one was wondering if/whether Fatima has arrived yet. Can we use calculator? Yes we can— The students wanted to know if/whether they can use calculator. Is there a café? 0— He asked if/whether there was a café. Some examples of changes to the tense, the pronouns and soon e.g., what are you doing?—- an official asked what we were doing. How much money have you got?—-I asked Sarah how much money she had. Does Sabehat need a lift?— We wondered if Sabahat needed a lift.
Why was Fatima gone home? — Safdar wondered why Fatima had gone home. How did you find out —- We asked him how he found(or had found out). Can you type? they asked me if I could type.
Will there by enough time? —-Sami wanted to know if there would be enough time.
Reported order and Request:-
We can use the pattern tell /ask some one do something.
Direct Speech Reported Speech
Please move this car A policeman told me to move the car.
You really must work harder My parents are always telling me to work harder. Would you mind turning the We asked our neighbour to turn music music down down.
Please don’t wear those boots in I asked you not to wear those boot in the house. House.
Reported offers suggestions etc:-
We can use officer, promise, agree, refuse, and threaten with a to infinitive.
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
We will pay for the damage We offered to pay for the damage.
I’ll definitely finish it by the You promised to finish the work by end of next week the end of this week.
We can’t use an object + to infinitive after, remind, warn, advise and invite e.g. Don’t forget to ring me Naveed reminded Ahsan to ring him. I think you should take a taxi— Saleem advised me to take a taxi. We can use an ing form after suggest, admit, insist on and apologized for; Shall we go to a hotel? He suggested going to a night club. I really must have a break Fayyaz insisted on having a break,
Universal truths are true always and every where. He says, ” God is one. He say that God is one. They said, ” The earth is round.—- They said that the earth is round.
Exclamations:- In these sentences expressions of emotions or feelings ( from anger, pain or surprise are made). He said, ” How glad I am.” He exclaimed to him that he was a fool. We should always remember that We should use exclamation, we should make use of that Not use what or have, Avoid any interjection (oh, also, Ah etc).
Optative sentences are used for expressing wish or prayer. She said , ” May I get through the examination. She prayed that she might get through the examination. His mother said, ‘” May you live long. In these sentences said is changed into wishes that or prayed that. Change direct into direct:
1. She said, “May I go through the examination. She told that she might go through the examination.
2. The farmer said to his son, “I am leaving a great treasure for you.” The farmer told his son that he was leaving a great treasure for him.
Question No.3. What is poetry? Explain different form of poetry and steps for the study of poetry and figures of speech.
Poetry is the all of expression noble through in Rhythm melodious language it is one of the fine arts, in other words; its aims to give pleasure, It tends to refine the feelings and it is an unselfish gratification of the emotions, allowing of the participation of all people. Poetry deals with the two comprehensive subjects of: Nature and mankind, it appeals more to emotions that to the understanding. It is combination of the work of the painter and musician, for poems are word-pictures presented in musical language. Poetry differs from prose in form and subject. Poetry expresses human emotions as opposed to reason, whereas prose which of expression is used to express human thoughts. It has a purely intellectual appeal.
Expression of thoughts:-
Man used poetry to express feelings and thought even before he knew the art of writing. It touches many aspects of human life.
Views of different thinkers about poetry:-
Coleridge say,i, A poem is that species to composition, which is opposed to the words of science proposing for its species having this object in common with it. ” Poetry is spontaneous over flow of power full feeling, it takes its origin from emotions recollected in tranquility ” (words worth) ” Poetry is general sense, may be defined to be the expression of the imagination.” (shelly), ” A brobute poetry is the concrete and critic expression of the human mind in emotional and rythecal language (Theodore watts-daton)
The study of poetry:-
General approaches: The study of poetry has its technical side. We should be aware from the outset that not all verse deserves so there are three basic questions to approach any been.
1. What is the poetry saying? First of all the understand the theme, purpose or motive in writing of the poet. Consider each idea in the poems content (subject matter) consider the arrangement of ideas and their relation to the theme.
2. How is the poet saying it? Examine the form (pattern). The mood of atmosphere or feeling, which is created, and the devices of sound and language.
Theme and content:-
Our first task is to make sure we know that the poet is saying. We should able to offer on explanation of each idea as it is developed in the poem. When we have considered the whole subject matter of the poem, we must try to find its theme. (the central or controlling idea). Only the theme can tell us why the poet feel he had to write the poem.
Figures of speech:-
When we speak of a man being as a brave as a lion, we do not say what is strictly true, but the words aptly described the man’s bravery. The word as brave as a lion are not used liberally, but figuratively. A figure of speech may therefore, but defined as devotion from the pain and ordinary mode of speaking for the sake of greater effect.
Classification or Figures of speech:-
The figures of speech can be arranged under six main heads as shows as below —
1. Figures base on agreement, similarly, or resemblance. They are used when like objects come under our notice. Simile, metaphor etc come under this group.
2. Figures based on contrast, difference or surprise. They are used when, unlike , objects comes under our notice. The figures antithesis, Epigram, belong to this class.
3. Figures based on contiguity or on the principle of the association to ideas. These are prime imagination i.e. these figures which bring to our imagination lifeless. Things as they were alive. To this class belongs such figures as personification, vision, Apostrophe and others.
4. Figures bases on indirectness of speech. The figures are employed when we want to suggest things by implication rather then by direct simple sentences. To this class belongs innvendo, rong, sarcasm and others.
5. Figures based on sound. We used these figures when we make the sound of the word suggest the sense or when we fix a point more finely in the memory. Such figures are alliteration, Rhyme or Assonance.
A simile is a likeness between two things or events in full. The thing compared must not too obviously resemble the object with which it is compared, hor should the likeness to remote or uncertain. A simile is usually introduced by a word of comparison such as like, so, as—-so. For example:-
i. the soul was like a state and chuetapor (words worth).
ii. ii. The quality of mercy is not strained.
Metaphor: -A metaphor is an implied comparison. The likeness, says Bain is embodied in a single word and that word is put forward as if it were the plain and literal name for the fact. When we say, man is like a wolf to man, we use a simile, but we say, man is a wolf, we employ a metaphor. For example: – The rod was a ribbon of moon light. A roaring contract of nonsense is poured forth upon this tremendous subject.
It is a figure by which we attribute life and mind to inanimate things. It arises from a natural tendency in man, in emotions of intense feelings to invest things and ideas with qualities and passions like his own. Shelley’s cloud, for example, is one long personification. For example: –
i. But, look , the Norn, in reset mental clad, walks O’earthedew of you high estword hill (Shakespeare).
ii. The ice forge and churlish chiding, of the winter’s wind.” Shakespeare’s , As you kike it(Milton)
iii. Peace hath her victories. No less renowned than war. iv. Truth has a gentle breast.
Hyperbole of Exaggeration is a figure by which things are represented as greater or less than they really are. For example: -I beg a thousand pardons, I would rather see a hundred deaths, Charging an army while all the world wondered—- Tennyson., A sea of troubles (Shakespeare).
Antithesis is the figure in which one word or idea is set against another with the object of height evening the effect of what is said. A dark night makes a flash of lightening more vivid. This explains the powers of verbal antithesis. For example: -God made the country, but man made the town”lOne man’s food may be another man’s person”
” United we’ stand’ awaided we fall”.
” Man proposes God disposes”, Speech is silvern, silence is golden.
Prosperity, gains friends, adversity tries the, look like the innocent flower, but the support unert (Shakespeare). Given every man they are, but few they voice, take each man’s consure, but reserve the judgment (Shakespeare), may large kingdom for a small grave (Shakespeare), knowledge come but wisdom lingers (Tennyson).
An epigram is a brief saying in prose or verse, remarkable for brevity point, it may involve a contradiction between literal learning of the words, and the meaning intended. Bain says, the epigram is an apparent contradiction in language, which by causing a temporary, rouses our attention to some important meaning underneath. For example:-
1. The highest art is to concede art.
2. compicuous by haibsense.
3. The child is father of the men (words worth).
4. He lived a life active idleness.
Question No. 4: What do you understand by the nature of the poetic language? Explain the foundations of imagery form of verse, and rhyme with examples’.
By imagery, we mean the suggestion of vivid mental picture of image by the skillful use of word. By means of words, a poet can suggest beautiful sight, efforts as well as beautiful effects. All this is due to the poet’s gift imagination, which makes in pictures may be drawn either form the real word or the ideal word of imagination in which a poet makes us see mental pictures.
1. By description: – Here are the points of poet, real or ideal words.
2. By figures of speech: -Another way of suggesting mental pictures is by comparison. He doe this by either simile, metaphor, personificate.
3. By picture que Epithets: – A poet can also call up a picture with a single illuminating sored or phase i.e., all in heat and copper sky. The bloody sun of moon — Coleridge.
Sometimes a particular objector image is made for some idea. The crose, for example, always suggest Christianity” Eve is the symbol of womankind and “Adam” the symbol of all men. Foe example: – The form of any orn poem depends on the writer’s choice of rhythm and metre, rhyme, length, line, stanza and even a particular set of knowing all these names, however, they can be very helpful giving you an exact term for the effect you wish to communion.
It is the division of the line of verse into a number of regular units or feet. Each material pattern has its own special effect on the mood of the poem.
The figure should not be used in a phrase, except for the sake of emphases. The problem of rhyme is never is called a rhyme scheme and written discussion. We should use letters to the alphabet to distinguish the variation e.g., ;’Ring out, wild belts to the wild sky (a)
“The flying clouds, the prosy light (a)
“The year is dying in the night (a)
“Ring out, wild belts and let him die (a)
Rhythm is the regular rise and fall in a line of poetry. It series of equal or near equal events in time (Beats, syllabus stress etc). There is rhyme in prose as well as in verse, but prose rhythm does not follow regular pattern, verse has regularity, which comes form the division of lives into a metrical feet. Unlike a rhyme, rhythm is absolutely necessary in poetry.
Although there are memories technical terms for different patterns, the most useful ones are the quatrain (four lines) and the couple (two lines). Some people reject stanza, like the paragraph in prose.
Major forms of poetry:-
There are three major forms of poetry i.e.,
1. Objective poetry: -The fundamental characteristic of this form is that it deals directly, not with the thought and feelings of the poet but wish the outer word of passion and action. In objective poetry the poet projects himself into the life without and seeking there his motive and subjects.
2. Descriptive poetry: -In this kind of poetry the poet usually describe different objects of nature or other things that he may find of interest to himself. Words worth’s poem, “Daffodils” and example of this kind of poetry.
3. Narrative poetry: -In this kind of poetry greater importance is given to the event’s then a to the things that are described. Caleridge’s, the rime of the Ancient mariner, is an example.
4. Reflective poetry: -In this kind of poetry, the poet expresses his own ideas about things.
Minor form of poetry:
Lyrics may be sub division into;
Sir Edmend Gosse defines an ode as Anystrain of enthusiastic and exiled lyrical verse directed to a fixed prose and dealing progressive with one dignified theme: in modern poetry an ode, therefore may be said to possess the following characteristics. It is no longer sung or accompanied by music. It is a dignified expression of,a highly reflective or sub line theme. It style and thought must be dignified. It is more or less complex or elaborate in structure. The ode is not exactly personal in the character, it meditative rather than emotional. Its structure may be either regular or irregular.
Elegies are those poem, which are written on the death of a man or the loss of a cause.
This is a narrative poem of such more solemnity magnitude than the balled. Its subject is legend or great heroes or main events in a nation history.
The sonnet is a poem of 14 iambic pentament lines, limited to the exposition of a single thought or sentiment, which may be matory reflective, patriotic or any other. It is characterized by a peculiar structure. It contains two parts. The first part, consisting of eight lines is called the octave, while the 2nd, consisting of sic lines is called the sestet. The arrangement of lines, in the octave is – ab ba ab ba. The sonnet has the arrangement of lines in the following order: Cde cde or cd cd cd.
5. Lyric verse:-
Traditionally there have been several lyric forms each with its own characteristics. However, all lyric verses marked by an intensely personal expression of thought and feelings, and thy it is highly subjective in treatment.
While writing appreciation of a poem first thing is to deal with the term and content. Then make an attempt to understand poet’s motive and idea; you may also indicate the type of poem. Particularly if it follows a definite structure such as the sonnet. Make some comments on rhythm, time length and stanza pattern if they are deliberately organized enhance or emphasis the ideas or mood of the poet, language, taking note of use of poetic devices such as figures of speech and tricks of sound. Finally, you should give your own opinion of the poet’s success perhaps emphasizing the qualities. You consider more worthwhile ‘ perhaps comparing it with other poems of similar content and mood.
Question No. 5: Change the following into active voice:
Passive voice Active voice
1. His brother was not seen by me: I do not saw his brother.
2. Good pictures are enjoyed by Everyone : Every one enjoys good pictures.
3. A Cup of cold milk is being drunk by her : She is drinking a cup of cold milk.
4. His brother will be met by me : I shall meet his brother.
5. Lies Should not be told by him : He shell not tell lies.